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1 2 3 








The Relation of Hans Sachs 


IDE C-A.3yCE I?.03Sr . 




Submitted to the Philosophical Faoult7 of Johns Hopkins University 
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 


Archibald MacMechan, Ph.D., 

Munro Professor of English Language and Literature, Dafhousie University, 

Halifax, Canada. 

Nova Scotia Printing Company. 






k /^/53V 


§ 1. Classiflcation as to Source. — Accordinfj to the General 
Index to Sachs' Works, preserved in the Town Archives of 
Zwickau, he wrote ei«?hty-five Shrovetide Plays. These have 
been edited for the first time, in a complete and separate form by 
Edmund Goetze : SihnmtHrhe Fastiuichtspiele von Hans Hacks. 
Neudvucke deuUcher Litteraiuriverh' dcs XVI. wtid XVII. 
Jahrhunderts, Halle, 1880-1887, vols. 26/27, 31/82, 39/40, 
42/43, 51/52, 00/61, 63/64. Of these eighty-five plays, four 
have been lost, viz., No.s. 29, 33, 48, 55 ; the remaining eighty -one 
may be classed in relat'on to their sources, as follows : 

I. Those with ascertained sources. 

II. Those in which the material has been otherwise 

handled by Sachs. 

III. Those for which no .sources, mediate or immediate 

have been found. 

^ '2. Contents of each Division. — Under I. are comprehended, 
Nos. J 6, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 31, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 49, 50, 51, 
63, 56, 58, 61, 62, 64, 71, 72, 73, 74, 77, 81, 83, 84, 85. 

Under II.— Nos. 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 25, 28, 30, 32, 35, 36, 37, 
38, 39, 52, 54, 59, 60, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 75, 76, 79, 80, 82. 

Under III— Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17, 21, 
40, 63, 78. 

§ 3. Furtlier Classification of Section I. — The plays in the first 
division may be still further classified, according to the sources 
from which they are drawn. In the following table and 
throughout the Dissertation the Shrovetide Plays will be cited 
by the numbers assigned to them, Neiidr. 2iSj-n , v, vi, vii, viii. 


(a.) Decamoron : 

IX. 3 ^ j(. 

VTII. 10 oq 

rx. f) :.■.■;;::::.::::: 2n 

X. 2 917 

j^V^-^^ ■■■.■.■.•;;.■.::::::::; 41 

"V^ 42 

VO. (J AO 

VJT. 5 4? 

VII.4 ::;::::: 11 

I. 6 „ 

IX. 5 ..;;;.;;;■■ 62 

IX. 4 uf 

IX. 1 :;;;;:;::::;;::;: 'l 

(b.) Pauli : Sdiimpf imd Ernst : 

Anecdote 408 22 

•^ 24 

l'^4 50 


41 83 

r^'.y) Eulen.spieg-el : 

Historie 7i^ ki 

i^ 58 

30 70 

6(S .[....[..[.[ 77 

(d.) Gesta Romanorum : 

No. 129 Qi 

.^; 5« 

--" 61 

(e. j Plutarcli's Lives : 

Alexander 14 4^ 

Solon ... ^ ' tj^ 


(f.) Steinhowel's Aesop': 

P'^31-83() .4 

41-5''^ : 85 

1 See Pauli, Schimpf u, Ernst, No. 646. 

" See Pauli, No. 650. 

8 Ed. Keller. Litterar. Verein in Stutt. vol. 51. 

§ 4. Plan of I)lHs«rtation.— Tlie plan at first ornltractMl sectiona 

1. and II.; l»ut it soon became evident that the limits of nn 

ordinary dissertation precluded such discussion, and it was 

theiet'ort! necessary to ouiit all hut the Boecaccian plays, viz., 

(I. (f,) the first thirteen. It is my intention to Iny each of these 

plays in turn side l»y side with its source, and point out the 

atn-eenients, diver^'encies and omissions, hoth in fact and 

expression. The more important verhal corres])()ndences will be 

arranged in parallel columns. Previous handlinrrs of the same 

material will be considered, as forming an inttn-mediate step 

between the Decameron and Sachs: and attention will be called 

to any particular, however small, which may tend to elucidate 

Sachs' dramatur<?ical methods. By so doinj.r, it is hoped to throw 

light up(m the workings of the typical (lerman mind of the 

Sixteenth Century and off'"r a small contriVaition to the history 

of CJerman dramaturgy. The text and notes of Uoetze's edition 

referred to (§ 1) have formed the basis for my woi-k, and in 

treating the plays I shall adhere to the chronological ari-angement 

which he has followed. The plays are taken up in t!ie order 

indicated in § 3 (a), and reference is always made by the 

numbers of that table. In general, the source is mentioned 

and the date : then follows a synopsis of the source, an epitome 

of the plot for the purposes of comparison, and the additions and 

omissions with the probable reasons for such changes. The plan 

varies with each play. When a special point has been fully dealt 

with in an earlier play, it receives leHS notice in the later dramas. 

The writer hopes thereby to avoid monotony, to secure proper 

emphasis and to present the entire series somewhat as an 

artistic whole. 


§6. Correction of Goetze No. JG. Der Schivnnfjer pmver : 

Dated Nov. 25th, 1544. Goetze, by some oversight, omits to 
state its source. He merely mentions the reprint by Keller, 
9, 23-24 (B'M. Lit. Verein) and the Schwank on the same 
subject Keller 5, 120-128. But in a note to the latter Keller 
refers to the following passage in von der Hagen's Gi'mmmhihen- 
teuern ii. Einl. x. : " Hans Sachs hat diesen St. of als Schwank 
and 15U c^l^ Fastnachtspid r/lUcklich mid treu nach Boccaccio 
hearbeiteit." The source is also stated in the note as Dec. ix. 3. 

Tndoed, it would seom from liis I'oforpnco to the ji1m)V»» passupr' 
in lii.s notes to No. SO, vol. (I.S <)4 X., »ih if he thou^dit Dee. ix. .3 
was tli«^ source of No. SO, whereas it is only remotely coinieet(!«l 
with it. The Sehwank is untlated, hut from what is know!i of 
Saehs' usual practice, it may be safely concliKled that the 
Sehwank was wi-itten tii'st. In it thrtn; wa^s play a [»ractieal 
joke upon their stingy companion. It cannot be .said to have 
inHuenced the iilav to anv noticeable extent. 

§ «. SyiiopsiM of Dec. IX. 3. — The story of the xuniA.Shi n/iio. 
p. oo-l-*, is brit'Hy thi.s. C'alandrin is left a legacy of a hundred 
pounds, and resohes to buy lain! with it: his friends Burt'elmacho 
and Bruno try to induce him to s(|uander ])art of his legacy on 
them, but he is too stin^'^y to spend a farthin(,r With the 
assistance of Nello, they persuade him that he is ill, and take 
him home. The maid takes his " harm " to a [)hysiciai', who is 
instructed by Bruno what to .say. 'i'he latter comes, feels 
Calandrin's pulse, and tells him tiiat he is in a family way, at 
which he nukes a i^i'eat outcry and blames his wife for his 
misfortune. Simon savs that he can cui'e him, but it will l)e 
costly ; the victim nfives the conspirators five j)oiuids and the 
tloctor prescribes a little spiced wine: by di'inkinj^' this for 
three days Jalandrin is cured. Meanwhile the rot^'ues have had 
a treat witi his money. 

§ 7. Similar ideas found elsewliere. — The same idea is 
contained in Nicklas v. Wyle, p. IS, 1. 17 ft". Bihl. Lift. Ver, 
vol. 57, which reads " GornKciiis nni MuHiiixl nunnt >^ic/i, sdbH 
scliirawjir sin luid forclit laiiy zyt (lh> f/ehurf vmh (his sin 
hiisfniwi'cmis mdlK aiif J/i.m t/rlri/ft) iras. And in Gcstunmfah. 
2. xxiv. die moidc imagines himself in the same condition for a 
similar veason. There is no necessity for .supposing that either 
of these influenced Sachs. 

§ 8. Synopsis of No. 1«. — The introduction to the ]>lay I'ecalls 
the old pattern Fastnachtspiel : for the first ])easant wishes his 
audience a good evening and tells his purpose in coming. This 

' Decameron von Heiiirioh Steinliowel, vol. 51 of Biblothek des Litt. Ver. in 
Stufigart. Saclis undoubtedly drew on this text. His relationship to tlie 
Ge'nian Decameron is not affected by the question wlicther or not Steinhowel 
was the author of it. Dr. H. Wunderlicii's dissertation, Stoinhowel und das 
Dekameron, reached me after my work was complete. 



JH eviilciitly a siirvival of th<> aiinounconieiit of the (lialojjiic by 
the herald. The two, who vveie exj)OC'te(l, join tiie tiist actor ; 
thtir joint |mr[)ose in to unite their icsourecs for a merry 
► jhrovetitle. IJrhan su^'^ests that they should ui'^^e Kai'<;as, who 
has falliMi heir t<; some money, to join thrni. Kai'i^^as enters 
1. 42; thry make their pi'ojiosal knt»wn to him; hf refuses 
8urlily and exit. The three luiteh a ])lan to cheat him, which is 
to be put into execution next moinine-. Immeiliately u|)(»n this 
(without any interval elapsing'), Kai'<j,as a<^'ain ajipears, and eacli 
in turn tells him h.ow ill he looks, till he is himself persuaded 
that he can hardly stand. Urban f'oes for the doctor, who jx<'ts 
his instructions oft' the .sta^^t^ ; the doctor [)ronounces Kar<,ras to 
be with chiM.and prescribes for him. H*^ ])ays the fee williuffly, 
and the |)hysician hajids the montiy over to Mei'ten, to l)e 
expended in a feast. The ])atient is cured by a "chiirf," and on 
his recovery effusively thanks his nei^dd)ours and the clever 
iloctor. Simon, the physician, speaks the e])ilo^m(> and enforces 
the three morals ; be generous, be jtrudent, choose the middle way. 

§ 9. Correspondences. — The main inci«lents of the ori^nnal 
story are faithfully preserved. The stintjy man has inhei'ited 
money, refuses to be free with it, is deluded into bt'lieving 
himself with child, is cured by a drink, and pays for his cure. 
Only the names of the characters are (ierman in.stead of It dian. 
The more impoicant verbal corresj)ondences are thefolkn\ '.wg : — 

Stfinhw. p. t)5^y, I. 4- 
wie siclistu mich also an. 

No. tH. I. lis-/!: 
Dank dir ; (Jott gel) dir ein gut jar I 
Ey, wiu sieh.stii niieli also an ? 
p. 55S, I. (>. I. I'iO. 

du pist nicht der den ich gester saclie. O dii bist nicht der gesti'ig man. 
p. ,;.7.7, /. 10, IS. I- iss. 

Nello saget niir — — traun ia du Du sichst sani seyatu halber todt. 
magst gai' wol was haben, dann du 
diinckcst mich halber tod sein, 

p. 555, L 16. I. 1^5-1. 

Nello saget mir iozund wie ich aller ITrban hat mir anch erst erzelt 
in nieinem anplicke verkert were. Wie icli mich hab so gar enstellt. 

Nun ist mir je so gar nicht whe. 
p. 555, I. 23. I- I4t^- 

Was krankheit ist dich so gachling Was kranelieit hat dioh angestossen 
angestossen das du also vngestalt bist. So gehling ': 

/. 144- 
Du bist entstellet vberal. 



§ 10. structure of No. 16 in Detail.— Althon^u it is not so 
indicated in the text, this play divides itself into three scenes : 
I, the plot (11. I -111), II., the deception (11. 112-264), III., the 
-iure (11. 2(j4-end). The last two are to a large extent made 
ready to his hand, but the first is of Sach.s' own construction. 
It is necessary to furnisli a motive for the piece. How does 
Sachs accomplish this ' He works from the hint Sreinhw. p. 
554,1. 82, " (l()rh so v'rmunen nye waren nock in d<irznprin<ien 
nwchten das er in nur ein candel ■weins do von bezalf kef, Hich 
des von im Iddgfen," and from it forms tiie openinf? scene down 
to 1. 90. The three peasants ai-e not introduced all at once : that 
would be too clumsy, but the device of a previous appoint- 
ment is used, to olwiate any sui^.h difficulty. The olyect of the 
peasants in meetintr is to unite their funds for carnival week. 
Karfjas has a lefracy, and to help tht.m would be a neighl)Ourly 
thing to do. This ol)ject would be much more intelligible 
to a Gei-man audience than the motive of the Italian story, 
which is to persuade a rich fool to spend his money in junketing 
instead of undertaking: larofe contracts which he cannot fulfil. 
Nothing is said of Kargas' desire to purchase lands ; it would be 
aside from the story. F rom Merten's speech, I. 20, we are led to 
expect the niggartl's refusal, which is prompt and unmistakable. 
When he goes out, they plot their revenge, which is one man's 
plan, as in Bt^ccaccio, and is merely to make him believe that he 
is ill. In Sachs, as in the Decameron, it is the ])hys'iCian who 
reveals the desj^erate nature of his malady. It is to be noted 
that Sachs makes one ".areless l)lunder. Hans says, 1. 93 : 

" Icli rieth das wir Drey alle sander 
Monjeji frit kemeii," 

while in the very next speech Urban says, 1. IIH : 

"Schaw ! dort geht gleicl. der Kai-gas r.-.uaz." 

This is unusual, and arose probably from a recollection of 
Sfeiidiw. p. 554, I. 87 : " vnd den ncchsfen iacf durnach warten 
dxis Cahindrin, &c." 

§ 11. Omission of the Obscene. — From this on, the situations 
are more like of the novel. Sachs, however, makes one 
important and characteristic omission. Calandrin says, Stcinhw. 
p. 556, I. 15 : ■' Aive mir Tessa davza. prln</est da mirli, du hasf 


i : 


mw* das c/ethon vnd hast allwi'f/en oheii ligcn wollev." Tessa is 
not introduced into the play at all, V)ut 1. 199 Kargas says : 
" An drill ist 'liar schuldiy inein Weib," and, withoviu further 
defining his woe, goes on to speak of other matters. The 
obscene remark is repeated with variations, l:<t('ivh'W. p. 566, 11. 30 
and 88, and this is the point of the Italian nuvel. But in Sachs' 
l>hiy it IS the ridiculous situation of a pei-fectly sound man 
brought to believe that he is ill, a German Malade Imafji/naire. 

^ 12. Kargas' Mental Pn,c'es8e». — The mental ]n()cesses by 
which Kargas deceives himself in thinking himself ill and then 
restored to health, are very skilfully depicted and show Sachs to 
great advantage over his original. Only those points will be 
noticed in wdiich he differs from Boccaccio. Urban pretends 
1. 121-2, to notice a change in colour, an alarming symptom. 
Kargas takes this up, " Bin irh so hleich .? &c" Urban again 
refers to his coloui- 1. TicS : " Dn hist sehr Wissel farb vvd gelb." 
Above 1. 125 Kai-gas has already fancied himself unwell : now 
left to himself, his suspicions are arousad, 1. 129; "Was 
kranckheit ■tiuisz ich inich basoiyen .'" Next Merten greets him, 
and is startled into exclaiming, 1. 181 : " Kargas sag ! iras 
felt dir hie f Still the dupe's good sense struggles against the 
illusion, for he says, 1. 187 : " Nan ist mir ye so gar riicht a-he," 
(§ 9). V/hereupon Merten retorts capitally, 1. 188 ff. : 

" Mein Kargas, <lu mich recht verstht ! 
Deiii Wlietag ist so gross da innen, 
Das (111 sein setbs niclit tluist entpfinneii." 

Hans now enter:^ and remarks his changed colour and peaked 
look, and when he goes to help him, notices the very unpleasant 
symptom of a bad breath, 1. 150. Kargas then feels very ill, 
1. 152, stage-direction: "Kargas grcifft an die Brust" and 
complains, 1. 152 If. He cannot stand, so +hey seat him in a 
chair, h 157: he describes his symptoms 11. 1()8, 164, 167, and 
laments the lost blessings of health 11. 170, 248. Simon the 
physician comes, and Kargas' first speech, 11. 176-184, shows that 
the illusion has become complete. Simon does not tell him at 
once what his malady is, but leads up to it, 11. 189-191. Kargas' 
comic lamentation follows, upon hi.s embarrassing condition. 
The last })art, touching the practical difficulties, 1. 207 ff'., is all 


Sachs' own, as well as the speecli 11. 239-245. The counter- 
scene to this, his recovery, 1. 2(55 to the epilogue 1. 298, is all 
expanded from the sentence ; Sfcinlnu. p. 557: 1. 25-p. 558, 1. 1. 
The physician's speech alone is pven in the source. In a word, 
Sachs has made the freest use of the Boccaccian idea changing 
the whole complexion of it, and adaptinfj^ it in no unskilful way 
to the re(|uirements of his own nature and his audience. 

I 18. Comparison of Nos. 16 and 80. — The principal additions 
need no further explicit references. It i-emains only to compare 
this play with a later one of similar contents, viz., No. 80, De7' 
schivanger pavr mit dent fuel. This is in no sense of the word 
a development from No. 10, and is not derived from the 
Decameron. It is the dramatization of another tale, probably 
the source of the 24th poem, vol. 11. v. d. Hat^en's Gesaymntah. 
On comparison, the sinj^le case of borrowinjif was found to l)e in 
the peasant's comic lamentation. This is in accordance with 
Sachs' usual practice, viz., to transfer lines which pleased him 
from the earlier to the later work. The following correspond 
exactly : 

No. 16, 1. 208 No. 80, 1. 254 

205 258 

211 257 

199 260 

200 262 

219-221 2(13-265 

The point in No. 80 is also a man's imagininej himself to be 
pregnant. But the joke is on the Jew (juack who diagnoses 
from the mare's " harm " instead of the man's. The play is 
more broadly humorous than No. 16, and much better constructed. 
It is remarkable for the Juggling trick, 1. 233 .stage-direction ; 
the porti'ayal of the petulant sick man, 1. 22 \\.. and for tlie 
closing line, ''Bit s((m])f sfin :-ipHewfpn Havfi >SVr/i.s, ' which 
would go to show that Sachs acted in his OAvn plays ; rf. Hans 
Sachs Werke, ed Arnold. Deiit. Naf. Lit., vol. ?il, ix. 

§ 14. Signiflcanoe of No. 16 in Sachs' Development.— If Goetze's 

chronology is correct.^ this play marks a turning-point in Sachs' 
career. Taken in the series, it is the first wKich attempts to 

1 Cf. Scherer, Geschichte der Deutschen Literatur. 3te Aufll. Berlin, 1885, 
p. 749. 


represent a story with any degree of coinijlieation in the plot, 
and with decided action and reaction of character iii)on cluiracter. 
Those which went Itefore are mere dialof(iies of carnival 
mummers differing chietiy from those of Keller's great collection 
in the avoidance of tiie ohscene, in better literary workmanship, 
and in their moral purpose. But No. l() fixes the date of a new 
period in Sachs' development. From this time the progress 
towards a concentrated, one-act farce, is steady and unmistakable. 
Especially after the building of tlie Spielhaus in 1550, this 
development was very rapid, till the result was a short play with 
a strictly limited luimber of actors, whicli {)resented a closer 
resemblance to the modern French vaudeville than to any other 
species of composition for the stage. T am not aware that 
attention has been specially called to this precedence of Germany 
over England and the rest of Europe in the evolution of the drama. 
In the four years following the erection of the theatre by the 
Mastersingers, Sachs produced 41 or nearly half the total number 
of Shrovetide Plays. Many of tliem have an alisolute literary 
value. They are written for a stage, the reference to the parlor 
audience is dropped, and the prologue and epilogue are in most 
cases omitted. Some show an advance towards the coin^die 
larmoyante,notivei\h\y No. 43, § Gl. The wonder is that when 
Sachs came so near to the threshold of the Shakespearian drama, 
he did not take the single further necessary step. 

§ 15. Mise-en-scene of No. 16. — The stage -directions of No. 16 
claim our attention. There is seen in them an attempt to produce 
a life-like impression. Kargas suits the action to tlie word 
1. 152; he complains of pains in the chest; stage-direction: 
" Karcjas ijrelff't an <lie Brufif, (fe." When he feels too vveak to 
stand, 1. 157 : " Sie furcn vnd setzen jn auff ein Scssd vicder." 
Just before, 1. 150, " H((i)k nimhf jn, <IV.," on his complaining of 
faintness. This is evidently meant tv) give occasion for stage 
'' business." The " harinylas " is introduced for realistic etfect, 
1. 185 : " Der Artzf hc-^cliawe.t den Prunnen, &c." In other ways 
he acts as a physician should ; !. 1JS9. " Ber Artzt befireifft den 
Fidsn, (t'c." cf. 1. 273. To express his grief Kargas is made to 
use a characteristic gesture, 1. 196: "Der Kranek siMecJd min 
Hend oh dem Kopff' zasam, (tr." Scene III., 1. 265, begins with 



a comic entrance " Der Kravck(/pht ein an eim Stecken. Merfen 
der hrinfif jm dm Traiirk." The cure takes place before the 
eyes oi' the audience, 1. 2(59 : " Der Knnirk trinrld, d-c," 1. 281, 
"Der Kraaeh sfeht cuf, brut dem urtzt die hand, &c." cf. 1. 293, 
sta^'e-direction. These hist two denote his effusi\'e joy. 

§ 10. Asides in No. 16. — Thei"e are two passages which would 
seem to l)e asides. Wliile there is no notice of Urban having left 
the stage, Kargas, 1. 129 : " K((r(/<(f< <jeht, redt mit jm Selbs" : 

" Was kranckheit musz ich mich l)esorgen ?" 

He evidently moves apart, but s])eaks so as to be heard. Also 
the physician's speech, 1. 249-264, is spoken in the presence of 
the victim, is not intended for his ears, and is preceded 1. 246, 
by the physician's moving to one side. 


§ 17. Source of No. 23 — No. 23: '•Nicola drr juiu/ hiaf- 
mon, dated Oct. lOth, 1<S50. (Joetze gives the .source Netul, 
31/82, xi. : " Den Stof hut dem Dlchter der acJden tagreifse in 
Boccace io.s Decameron. " 

§ 18. Contents of Dee. Till. 10 — The contents of Dec. VIII. 
10 are briefly as follows. A young merchant in Palermo falls 
into the toils of a courtesan named Sophia, wlio passes herself otf 
as a h^ly of (juality. She entra])s him into lending her a large 
sum of money, and then cuts all connection with liim. He feigns 
to go on a journey, and comes back Avith worthless bales and 
oil-jars tilled with watei- ; on the strength of these he gets his 
money back from Sophia, and then leaves her. 

?j 19. Sequence of Incident in No. 23. — Tlie play begins with 
a solikxjuy by Nicola on his foi-tunate trading in Palermo and his 
success with a noble lady. He has just sold liis wares, and is 
going to see hei\ His old friend Channiano warns him affiiinst 
hei'in vain. Both go off. Sophia then comes on with her maid, 
and disj)lays her real character. She says of her lovers, 11. 65 ff. : 

" Ks ist inir ciner wic der ander, 
Icli lial) keiii lieh jr allesander, 
Demi ao weit jeder gelt ausz geit. " 




The niai*] goes out to make some purchases; Nicola enters 
and finds Sophia sad ; her Vu-oilier is lield a captive at Messana, 
and must 'le ransomed. He lends her half the sum required. 
In the next scene he is turned from lier door l)y the servant. 
Tlien the old friend advises him to fill his hales Avith straw and 
his 6?I-iais with water, and enter them in the custom-house. A 
short scene is then given to S()])hia. in which she shows how 
liard and calculating she is, and exit. Nicoln makes a short 
speech hoj)ing for tlie success of his plan, and Sophia antl her 
maid re-appear ; the latter has discoveied Nicola's supposed 
we;dth and informed her mistress. Nicola enters, they become 
friends again, and the scene ends with an invitation to sup. An 
interval elapses between this and the next scene. Enter the 
maid, then Nicola, who sends her in haste for her misti'ess ; he 
te'ls the latter the pirates have taken his wares on the high seas, 
and he must have money to redeem them ; she gives liim the 
money and takes his written acknowledgment for the amount. 
In the next scene Nicola has left the city, and Sophia discovers 
that she has been tricked. The good old friend speaks the 
epilogue, and warns against false love and false w(mien. 

8 20. Further Agroeinent in Detail. — Besides adhering to the 
main outlines of the novel, Sachs' plays shows correspondences 
with the Decameron in such details as the pi-oper names and the 
story about Sophia's brotlier ; in both it is her l)i-otlier who is a 
prisoner at Messana, his ransom is set at 1,0(K) gulden, and she 
has only one-half that aujount, 11. 95-103. She has the same 
excuse for not paying him, namely, that he went away too 
hastily, 11. 248-245. 

§21. Analysis of Introduction. — In turning any t:ile into a 
drama, many of the events in the narrative must be ]-elated l)y 
the actors; everything cannot be represented on the stage, and 
yet every situation nmst be accounted for. ]n accordance with 
this, Nicola's opening speech, 11. 1-20, is a condensation of the 
larger part of the novel ; he is introduced just at the end of his 
stay in Palermo, when the main action begins. The warning of 
the old friend follows naturally. This is not found in Boccacci.). 
Nor is the following scene between Sophia and her maid, which 



is introduced for the purpose of showing Sopliia in lier true 
coloui'H, in her character of a mercenary coiu'tesan. This is a 
standiii<( device with Sachs. Where Boccaccio says that a 
charactei" is fooHsh, or false, or licentious, Sachs ro})resents it as 
actiiiff and speaking' foolishly, or falsely, or licentiously. Usually 
he makes the character betray itself uncon.sciously, as when 
Sophia says, I ()5 f. : 

" Es est mil- eiiier wie der aiider, 
loh hill) koin lieb jr allersander. " 

Another device, which he uses in coniuKm with other 
dramatists, is to let tnie character outline another by expressing 
an opinion on it. Nicola is represented as a weak uxurious fool, 
and the maid speaks of him, 1. 121 : " JJcr jatu/en ehifeltigen 
gaach," 1. 184, "dcrjainj hq)," cf. 1. 141. 

§ 22. Additions to No. 23. — Again, in the way of amplifica- 
tion, Sachs has constructed a whole additional scene from a slight 
hint in Boccaccio. This is also a standing device with him, 
(§ § 10, 8<S). Boccaccio, says Sfeiiihw. p. 548, 1. 7, " vnd do sy 
Ntv/i ((/.so hefrogeii fand l<iiH/e zeit mit tceiiien vnd kUufen ire 
tcuje vertrieb." Sachs, 11. 884-874, has worked on this hint in 
tliis way. The maid enters and tells how her mi.stress has lent 
Nicola the monc^y, and fears for her that some time she will 
" meet a goat instead of a sheep," and he punished for her 
knavery. Then, " Sophi(i kumht (felqfen." What shall she do? 
the young villian has fled, the bales and jars at the custom-liouse 
are fraudulent: she is out of her senses. The maid tries 
to console her by saying that perhaps he will return. " Sophia 
redt weinemli." No ? she has been at the inn, and he has left, 
never to retui-n. The maid cui'ses him coarsely, and wonders 
who would have expected that from him. " Sophia spricht 
weinendf ;" she has lost at one stroke what had cost her so much 
pains. The maid tries to comfort her by reminding her how she 
had deceived him, and Sophia rages in billijigsgate : " Sophia 
spricht zornig." 1. 885 ft. she says : 

" Ich gel) dir schier ein guts ins goschen, 
Du vnflat, wolst erst spotten mein, 
tJeh baldt in die kuchen hinein ." 



§ 28. Omission of Obscenity. — Quito as impoitant us Saclis' 
additions are his oinissions. A lar^e })art of +he Italian novel is 
devoted to a (^floating >lescription of the seductive arts by which 
Sophia entraps Nicola, such as theii* l)ein£( l)athed and V>e(kled 
toirether. This is left out entirely hv Sachs, hoth because it 
forms no part of the main acticni, hut only p)epares for it, and 
because lie has an innate repugnance to inrlccency. Moreover, 
liis a^'owed purpose was to i-eform tht; licentious })lay of the 
time. He is consistent with himself in this )'espect thi'ou^djout 
all these plays. This has been noticed already, (§ 11.) At 
thv same time sufficient hints are ^iven of w'hat has gone 
before to leave no doubt as to the situation. It was Sophia's 
plan by the magnificent dis}»lay (Strinhw, p. 5'J4, 1. 24 fi'.) 
referred to, to make Nicola think she was a lady of rank. Sachs 
hints at chis, 1. 7 fi". : 

" Eiii Edle Frawen, schon vik! zait, 
Die mioli guiitz lioldtseliger art 
Lie!) hat vud pflegt freundlicher weyss 
Mit gesohenck, kostlich tranck vnd spayss. " 

And again where Sophia directs her maid, 1. 51, to buy 

— " Vorheii vnd Ksch 

Vfigel vnd ander gut genescli 
Vnd rioht vns zu ein kostlich mal." 

And again, when Cliangiano warns him, Nicola retorts, 1. 'V2 ff, : 

" O, ich gil) Jr ni,:htH, sic giht niir, 
Hie liat niir diesen ring gesehenoket, 
Diss ketlein mif an hals geliencket ; 
loh hab sie aucii wollen 1)egal)en, 
Hat nie nichts xon niir wiJUen haben," 

It is only necessary to glance at Keller's collection to see 
how ui-gently a reform was needed in the Shrovetide play. 

§ 24. Contrasts in No. 2y. — Sachs also evinces a strong desire 
for contrasted and parallel scenes, which is essentially dramatic. 
First Nicola is deceived and then Sophia : each is in turn dupe 
and knave. The stage-directions show^ similarity of situation, 
1. cS5 : " Sophid i^etzf sirh irawruj iiido' ; Xicola kumht vnd 
f^priekt:' Then 1. 278: " >S'/V^ (the maid) laulf't, er sefzf sick 
tr<(wri(/. Die Sophia kwitihi, &c." As an instance of desire to 


hein^htoii otibct, the scene l)etween S()])hia and lier maid 
(11. \U:\ 2:iN) is hrou^dit in. It has no place in Boccaccio. In 
this scene S()])liia shows herself sconifnl towards her absent lover 
and inti-i^^uin^' a^^jainst him : her sei'vant is more compassionate 
on account of his ^ifts to her, 1. I!)!). So{)hia shows her desi<rnin^' 
character so plainly that she excites no sympathy when she is in 
turn deceived. The same tendency may be noticed in No. 87. 
Dcr fii/ii'f'udi SchiUer rtiit dem Teufdhanven, 11. 70-105, where 
the parson is unnecessarily severe upon the beggar student, and 
is afterwai"<ls humiliated and tricked hy him. 

§ 26. Mise-en-scene of No. 23. — The stage-directions do not 
reipiire particular notice in this play : the most important have 
already been given. They refer entirely to the expression of 
emotion in the speaker: " Sop/i'xi Hctzt ftich travjri;/ nidcr," 1. 85; 
when Nicola is refused admittance : " Er kratzt sick ini hopff, (jchf 
ah," 1. 141 ; in his des[)air, " Nleoln schlccht sein haiidf zain,c^c." 
1. 155: when Sophia has made up her mind to cheat him further, 
" 8oph la viabfeeht jkiv^ih-." 1. 23f): and the maid rmis ()ff(l. 277,) 
•' kU' lanff " to show her haste to obey Nicola's orders. 

§ 26. Aside in No. 23. — There is one speech also like an 
aside, viz., 11. 208-9, where Sophia has invited Nicola to sup. 
Even if the two preceding lines refer to the supper, the last 
two are clearly not meant for her ear : 

" Kanst du den achalck iioch so wol treiben 
Ich wil dir ein boasen reiben. " 

Sophia may have left the stage: cf. § 10. 

§ 27. General ('riticisni of No. 23. — What seems to have 
influenced Sachs in the selection of this })lot are the shifting 
changes in the relations of the pers(mages to one another, Nicola 
first rejecting Changiano's advice, then seeking it in his misfor- 
tune, Sophia tirst cheating her lover out of his money, and being 
in turn cheated by him ; each in a state of alternate exaltation 
and depressi(m. There is not much attempt at character-drawing, 
for, as Lessing points out, this is not necessary in the comedy, 
where the situation is everything. Changiano is the typical 
wise friend (cf. Nos. 5, 14, 81) who does not become annoyed 



because the youn<j;st<>i' will not follow liis advice, l>ut holds 
hinis«Ot' in rcailincss to liclj) him in liis extremity. Nicola is the 
foolish lover. 1. Ho If. Sachs shows this in the maid's speech, 

I. 202 f. : 

" wio selinlic'li vnd kleiii er sauli, 

Wuiin ii^h jin sagt, jr wert nicht da." 

He is thoroughly contemptible in })oth Sachs and Boccaccio. 
The character most elaborated is timt of Sophia. She is the 
typical harlot, p'eedy, hypocritical, One lovei' is as ^ood 
as another, if he only has the money, 1. (55 : she will not only 
pluck her pit^eon, 1. S but cut his win<(s. Aftei" boastinjyr liow 
she has pillatj^ed him, 1. 194, she finds out that he has wares at 
the custom-house : then she embraces him, 1. 240, and greets him 
f(mdly. She is keen enough to ^et (l.CJ27)a " schiildf ftricjfici n " 
for the money she ^ives him, thou^'h he had none from her, 
1. 130. Her coarseness asserts itself in hei" final outbreak upon 
her maid, 1. 3(55 f. Sachs also prepares here, as elsewhere (§ 10) 
for what is to come. Nicola is warned in vain. When lie tells 
Sophia of his ^oods in the " zollh<ni.s" he refers to othei- w^ares 
on their way to him, (1. 257) so 1. 282 comes in naturally. His 
fiction is better calculated to deceive than hers, on account of 
this preparation. Again, in the final scene, (1. 884 W.) the maid 
has premonitions of what may happen, and expresses them 
before hei' mistr(!ss appears upon the stage. 

§ 28. Correspondences. — In this play there is very little dia- 
logue transferred from the source. The sense is taken, i-ather 
than the actual words. 

Stf.inhoii-d, p. 5.17, I. 4. No. 23, I. 95 f. 

Ich hah in diser stuiide von Ich hab erst diesen brieff empfangen, 

von meinem priulcr brieffe geiial)t, der Mein lieber Bruder ligt gefangen 

mir zewissen tlmt niich pitgepoiit vnd Zu Missana biss in den todt. 

Bchafft das ich ini sohicke solt ich Wenn ich nit tausendt guhlen rot 

verkanffen vnd verseczen alles das ich Im Schick zu liisen in acht tagen. 

habc, inerliall)e acht tagen taussent So wirt man jm den Kopif abschlagen. 
ducatenn anders or sterben niiisz vnd 
im sein haid)t abge.slagen werd. 

Steinhw, p. 5.37. L !■'!. No. 2n, I. 101 f. 

Aber in solchor kurczer zeit nit Nun kan ich in so kurtzen dingen 

miiglich ist die zu ha})en noch ein zu So vielgeltesgar nitauff bringen, 


st.hihw, p. r.'tU I .?4f. 

(ler kaufiiiaiiscliacz der icli wivrtet die 
iut iiiit' von (It'll coi'salt! gi'iioiiHMi woi'dni 
vud die wider ze liahen triit iiiieh an 
zubezalen v iind die wider zeliJHeii taUMeiit 
giildin in goldu. 

Sfeiiihw, p. 541, I. 27. 
danndiefiiiifliiuidert guldiii di<Mrniir 
galiet ioh auf diesellien -tuiidf gen 
Napeltt Hcliieket leinwat zekauHen. 

No. S.1, I. SSI Jf. 
O schiJnH Lieh, ch Hindt iKise iiiehr 
FIcr von dfn Meurnuil)orn gekuniineii, 
I>ie lia))eu all nieiu waiir genuninien 
\'nd ieli hoI nie von diescn Inison 
NN'ol vnib taiiHeiidt gold giilden loHen. 

Xo. mS, I. '.'Ulf. 
W'iinn die fiintl'lmndert giilden gahr 
Hall ieli genehieket vnil) Leinwadt. 


§ 29. Source of No. 2(5. — Xo. -Jl). D'>c zurn jmiyrr mit 
*Sc/i(ny/(>, (lak'd Nov. 2!>, 1H5(). (iot't/c j^'ives the source in his 
notes Ncadr. 42/4li xxi. : " fni/c ir/i </h'lc/i /licr noch zwei 
Qiu'lten bei, die Ich ernt n<i('ltfrti<iH('/i t/f'jiui(h'ii. Dicjcriii/e zara 
Mi. FantiKichtsipielc ro^i Jo.srf ti ml isf dn.s DcraiiKWon 
9, 9." But he nowhere mentions tlie source of tlie intei'niezzo 
11. I2:i-180 and 11. l})5-24(). [ sliull first consider the source of 
this intermezzo. 

§ 30. Source of the Intermezzo. — \^)n der Ha^cn in Dentsehe 
Gedlchfr ilcf^ Miff('ltilfers: Berlin. hSOiS; SidoDion and Morolf; 
Eiid XV. .says: " Behuoi nter f<i ikI ddiici/rn zirri <iiif d'n'>ie Fahel 
ivahrsrlieialic/t (inch mu-h di-r Ih'niscin'ii Uchersetzniin gciiaii 
filch hezlchende LuMfspiclc ilcs I[<iiik S<ic/i.s," and ,^ives a brief 
analysis of this Slu'ovetide play and " das Jtidiflirnt S<(!(nn<>nlf^," 
written Marcli (Jth. of the same yeai', M'^EO. No. 2(1 is also 
printed, Keller -(}oetze 14, p. 124 11! The foot-note is as follows: 
" Da.s sfurlc heru/irt sick zunt f licit in if dcru Hait^ Folz ziufcs- 
nchriehenoi in dcD f((sf luicjiispirh'ii ditsdciii /'> Jahr/ni ndcnf, 
.V. ,5';!^ ein .'<pil n n htiiiij Saloinoii lOidMarkoIfo," This I 
consider misleading, for two reasons :, hecause a detailed 
examination t)f the twi) plays shows only such af;;reement as 
would result from the use of the same .source ; and secondly 
l)ecause no n-ention is made of the play from which wdiole lines 
are taken bodily into No. 2(5, namely dan Jiiditium Sidomonls 
referred to above; cf. No. 26, 11. 203-214, and Keller, vol. H, 
p. 12(), 1. 80 — p. 127, 1. 15, Avhere the speeches have been 
transferred word for word from the earlier play to the later. 



For similar pmctieo, cf. § i:i ; cf. also No. 20 11., 217-222, and 
Keller (5, p. 127. 11. l()-22 : also No. 2(1 11. 22.V227, and ?7;. p. 

127, 1. 31 p. 12K i. 4. The iinint'diato source of Jtidlfivm 

SaloiHoi) i.^inUHt have lieen either the Latin ori^nnal or one of the 
])rose translations mentioned hy v. <1. Haj,'en l)t>ut. (Jedichte, xiv. 
note 17, and the same author's Ndvrciihurh, Halle, IMII, p. 503. 
None of these translations have been accessible, hut a com pari.scm 
between No. 2() and the Navvcnhoch shows the following' 
correspondence.s. This ynvrcvhiich is a mordernization of the 
chapbooks referred to above : in re^nird to its exactness, v. d. 
Hajren says, p. 513: '' Dorh isf das crstr and H(ni/)f (it'spvirh 
v^flrlif.s (ivch hicr inii iiicisfcit duvrh Ziisiifze vvd AiinhtssiiufffV 
nhurichf fast vnvpviivdcrf (/fhru'lin)." Cf. Kemble, Solomon 
and Saturnus, London, 1H4S, p. 134. the Latin version. It is 
from this first dialogue that almost all the speeches are taken. 
Besides Solomon's .^renealofcy and Marcolf's burh^sipK; on it. 
which follows the Latin closely, other passages agree, viz. : 

.Vo. 2<>, I. 126 ff. 
Sag vor, von welohein gschleoht (l\i 

Ala denn wil ich dir auch bekennen, 
Mich sanibt ineinem gesohleeht hei- 

ih. I. 157 f. 
Gott hat mir geben solch VVeyszheyt 
Fiir all anft" ei'<lt zu inehier zeyt. 

ih. I 219. 

Narrivhnrh, )>. '^W. 
.Sage una zuvnr das ( Je.schleolit deiner 
Vater vnd Vorfahrcnden, so wil ich dir 
auoh sagen von unsern ( leHohleohten. 

U>. p. 2-21. 
Cott hat nieinem Munde Weisheit 
gegeben dasz keiner mir gleich ist in 
alien Laudern auf Erden. 

ih. p. 2,54. 
Denn ein jeder wird geboren von den 

Bist nit auch von einer P'rawen geborn ? Frawen. 

ih. p. 254, hoffom. 
aie regieret das Hans und ist sorgfal- 

ih. I. 22s. 
Vnd thut init fleisz jr Hausz erhalteu 

ih. I. 224. f. 
Ein Fraw die ist ein trost der alten 
Vnd dbi- jungen ein siissigkeyt. 

ih. I. 22(> f. 
Wer ohn Frawen Icbt diese zeyt 
Der ist auff Erdt lebendig todt. 

ib. I. 229. 
Oder du must an ein Bauin hencken. 

tig iini ihren Mann und um ihr Haus 


ih. p. 255, top. 

eine Siissigkeit der jungen, ein trost 
der alten. 

ih. p. 254. 

Furwahr, der ist wohl todt der Welt, 
der ist gesondert von den Franen. 

ih. p. 
Da ward Konig Salomon beschamet 
und liesz ihn fahen und hiesz ihn henken 
an einen Baum. 


There in a corrcHpoiwli'iit'c in the j^'t'iiralo^'it's, Imt in the 
N((rrmhurh, Solomon's uiiccsti'v is take fi f'r<»iii Mutt. I., I H!, 
while Siiclis ski|)S from tin- |)iiti'iiii"<'hs to Sohmioii's immrdiiitf 
jiikI famous forefathers, ami so pointless it-petition is avoided. 

^ 81. SjiiopNis of Moiiri'P. — The maiti plot is tak«'n from the 
novel, as stated aliove. The storv in luief is this : two men 
from different cities meet at an inn, and h'arn eaeh oth«a*'s 
liist(ti'v ; .losei)h is "roirif to Solomon t<t find out how to cure' his 
wifes shrewishness, and Melisso to tin<l out how to win love. 
The kin^' tells .h)seph curtly: "(io to the (ioosebi'ld^e " and 
Melisso " fjKve I" The\" return and find a m:tn liejitirii; a nude on 
the (Jooselirid^nv .Joseph sees the a|tplication, invites his frien<l 
home to his house, and tames the shrew hefore tlu' company. 

^ 32. CurrospondenopN with St( i huwol. — ^ With Sachs, tluMuain 

incidents are retained — the ei-rand of the two to Solomon, the 

curt answers, and the moi'al of wifelv suhiection. The corres- 

pondences in dialo<;ue are tlu; followiuif: 

Stfiii/ar, p. ,57.'/, /. ;>';. Xn. C'fl, I. 74 /■ 

ictli bin iun^ viul loich gilt diis nuin Dii hist docli ju eiii junger Man, 

luiss ill wolUihon inesseii vnnd triiiokt!ii. (Jesimilt von Ley!) vnd reycli ahn gut. 
inein purger czeei-en, 

ii>. 1. 77 jr. 

Wiewol ich grosse reichtunih lial) : 
(icsiindtlicit, Hi'liiiu viul ander gab, 
Hill fridtHiini, t'iiige/ogon \iid stil, 
ih. r,SO, I. 1. ih. l. Sn ff. 

Null nyiiiet niicli frcnid lu-i alU'iii .Ifdmli niein nieniandt achten wil, 
deni da/, icli ill fieiiiitscliaft tu das icli Dcrlieli vnd freimdtschafft /u mir sucht 
nyeinaiid tiiick' di« iiiir wol w'ille iiocli Oder /ii iiiir hot soiii zufliaht. 
niioh iiiit troueii iiieyne, Des hdi icIi glcioli alliie auf Erdt 

V'eriiast, vnachtsam vnd vnwerdt, 
Man lest inich gelin gleiuh wie ich geh. 
.Meinst iiit-iit, das dii inir heiniliuh weh, 
Das sicli jodcrniaii vor mir soheuoht, 
Mein lieb, freiuulschafft vnd gselsohatft 

Muss eiiisaiii bleiben frii vnd spadt ? 
Stfivhv', p. 580, I. 10. ih. I. 191 f. 

dem Salomon keyii ander antwurt So geh du bin auff die (ienszbrucken, 
gab, dann gee an die ganss bnigen, Da lehr die kunst in alien stucken. 

ih. p. 5m), I. 7. ih. I. *49. 

dem Salomon kurcz antwurt vnnd Fach an, \nd hab am ersten lieb ! 
sprach. Hab lieb das geaprochen zehand 
Melisso von im geweisst ward. 

I «:. 

I tli(> 

»' Ills 
(• on 


In tlirsf only tin* lust, iiciiiiips, is ('(luul in ('n»'r;^'y to tin* 
ori'diwil, Imt tlu'V luiv«' licrn put in to show tin* horrowlnL' : in 
11. (SO !l the anipliticntioii is a natural one alon;; tht; lines of tin; 

^ !{:t. MaclisM'liaii^'os in Material. In tins play Sachs hiiH 
made su('('|)ini( <'han;^'('s; he hasc<Hnl»in«'d two pints in rui unskil- 
ful way : Mciissoand .losi-ph arc not stran^^'crs, Imt n»*i^dil>oi"s of 
the same town ; jieeoi'dln^dy the necessity ol' a scene t(» explain 
their nieetiui; is ohviatecj. The incident <m theiJoosebridm' takes 
place olf the sta^e. .losej)h I'eturns and i'ej)oits on what lu> saw 
there. Melisso also i-eturns and is Further instructed l>y 
Solomon. TIk! final scene, where;|)irs wife is l»rou;^hjt to 
reason, is not even hintcul at. Thus it will l»e seen that 
there is a strivini^ to concentrate the action arourid the two 
sayings of Solomon ; that is the cause of tlu^ journey, that is 
what the two men came for: tlie incident of the man iieatin^ 
the nuile iilusti-ates one of them, and the rest of the j)lay is 
taken up with the explanation of both. It would Ik; meanini^ 
to have those wise saws spoken without furthei- ex|)!anation, 
and no one could so fitly ex])lain them as their authoi*. The 
Marcoif episode is not inti'oiluced at random. F'l'om all th(^ masH 
of the chap-l»o()k stoiy Sachs has selected only a small paj't, 
omitted what was coarse, ami joined it so closely with the rest 
ot* the ])lay, that the line can iiaivlly he perceived. Mareolf 
is the I'epresentative scoffer at wonum, and his conunents on 
them hem- on .Joseph's infelicity. Hei-e a<^ain Sachs {)repares us 
for what is to come by r(!presentin»( Solomon in his court with 
Ids fool counterpart. The introduction of Joseph and Melisso, 
with their (piestions, and without any foi'eplay, W(mld have 
been too crude. Sachs evidently felt this: cf. for similar 
tendency No. 51, 11. 52-<S(), where the lan<llord and his wif(^ come 
on and lament the hard times before the blind men appear. 
Both play and novel end rather tamely : Melisso and Jo.seph 
com[)are the advict; which they have received, and Jo.seph 
furnishes the epilo^j^ue. It has the usual didactic purpose, 
s(miewhat relieved hy the rou^h jokes on " crtzney" 1. 394, and 
" Spited" 1. 8!)S ; Sfelnhic, p. 582, 1. 14 : " Also daft vnrichtig 
we'd) hekeret vnd der innge eddnuin lieh (jelmht ward." 


§ 34. Analysis of the Motive. — Saclis develops his introducnon 
from the slight hint Sfeinhiv, p. 579, 1. 31 : " vie er zu Salomon 
ritt von im rat zevimen nfiinsivcihi^ halheii das die vnrichtifjeM 
vnd (7a« wiAerwiirthfeKf we'd) wilr <dler K'elf die er wed,er diirch 
hete liehe mind fre/mulschaffe in keyven werj von irer wider- 
wiirthjh'if hrim/en n'X'h zieheii nviehf." Joseph is made to 
enter talking to himself and bemoaning his unfortunate lot; 
Melioso enters and speaks to him, hut he hardly hears him. 
Melisso says, 1. 14 : " Blsf i/lcich entsefzet, blelch vnd, gelh." and 
the si,ag(!-d inaction is : " JoscpJi ivrndf filch rvd sprirhf." This 
"business" shows that before he had been looking in the 
opposite direction, and ha<l not noticed the entrance of his 
interlocutor. Then follow hi-i complaints al)out his wife, 11. 20-65, 
when Melisso in turn tells of his unhappy condition. This 
is a favorite theme with Sachs : and he handles it here with 
much deftness. I'he passage is a good description of the lien- 
pecked imsband's woes. Melisso and Joseph are not made 
to enter at the same time: 1. U)4 Joseph goes off, and 1. 240 
Melisso entei's. The interval has been taken up bj^ Solomcm 
praising women in the traditional style and Marcolf capping him 
with dispraise. This dialogue is pi-incipally in single lines. 
These changes are sufficient to show that Sachs is no w^ooden 
taker-over of plots, liut that he picks and chooses and adapts his 
material to his stage, and is guided by the principles of stao-e- 
effect. The stage-directions are of no importance in this play, 
except the one noted above, 1. 15, which shows the pre-occupiod 
state of the speaker. 


§ 35. Synopsis of Source Dec. X. 2,— No. 27, " Dcr <d)f im 
wild pad, dated Dec. 17, 1550. (ia^tze gives the .source, Nend, 
39/40 X. : " £'.s' id das J Sfiid- dcr zdudeu T<((/reise in dem 
Decaraeron des Borcacclo." The plot is bi-ic^fly as follows: 
Chino of Tacco, wdio had been driven out of Sienna for his 
misdemeanors, ado])ts the life of a robber. The rich abbot of 
Klingen has a disease of the stomach, and goes to the Siennese 
springs to be cured. Chino hears of this, an<l takes his measures 
accordingly. He sends a civil-spoken servant to stop the abbot 

and invite him to the castle. While they are parleying?, Chino's 
men surrouiKl the prelate and his train, and cai-ry them off 
prisoners. All are treated well exce])t the abbot, who is put in 
a dnngeon. Chino visits him disguised, finds out the object of 
his journey, and undertakes to cure him by means of ])oor and 
scanty fare. When the abbot is sufficiently reduced in flesh, Chino 
makes a feast for him and restores all that he had taken from 
him. He then tells his fitovy, makes him his friend, and, as a 
result of the abbot's intercessiim with the Pope, is restored to his 
possessi< »ns. 

^ 36. Synopsis of No. 27. — Saclis uses only part of this 
material, viz., the capture, cure and setting at liberty of the 
abbot. The poet is not interested in Chino's previous history or 
in the restitution made to him, but simply in the Rol)in Hood 
character of one adventure in his career. The play opens with 
a conversation between the knight, who is not named, and his 
two retainers, Schrannnfritz and Wursthans, which exposes the 
poverty of the castle. The knight informs them of the abbot's 
approach and gives orders ^or his capture. The abV)ot arrives, 
1. 88, with his servant in fancied security. Tlie knight steps 
out and demands his safe-conduct, finds out his name, errand 
and illness, and then tells h-m that he must accompany him to 
his water-cui-e. The scene changes to the castle apparently; 
th3 s(iuire enters and gives Wursthans directions how the abbot 
is to be fed. The fare is the same as that mentioned in the 
source, except that the bread is salted and water is given instead 
of wine. The baron then goes up into the turret to watch the 
road for other prey. HeiuuZ, the abbot's servant, next makes 
a short speech (11. 181-102) describing the hard treatment he 
and his master undergo in the castle. The two retainers enter 
upon his exit, discussing their hard lot ; they cease on the 
entrance of their master, who sends them off to waylay a 
merchant : they go off resolving to keep the booty to themselves. 
A vscenc ensued between the baron and the abbot's servant, 
which tells us what pa.sses in the dungeon. Heintz is sent to 
fetch his master ; before he can do .so, the two troopers return 
from their quest empty-handed. The abbot comes on, cured ; 
his property is restored to him ; he swears a solenm oath not to 



:t !i! 



take revenue, and orders his servant to make his carriaf^e ready. 
The retainers remain on the scene to comment on the abbot's 
trencher-play, their master sends them ott' to attend the abl)ot, 
and tlieri speaks a short comic epilofjne. 

§ 37. Relation of No. 27 to the Master-Song. — In T537, Sachs 
had iiseil the same matei-ial as a master-sonf:^, with the same 
title ; Arnold 2, p. Gl ; (}(edeke I, 101. The play comes nruch 
closer to the original in most details, except in the situati(m 
11. 103 -1 03. Here, as in the master-song, the " edelmon " makes 
the demand in per.scm, instead of sending his men. The closest 
textnal resemblance is : 

Xo. (12, 1. 107. 
" Wan ich l)iu cin ''weiuhte Person. 

M(istcr-sf)hi;. L /!>. 
" Er sprach Ins wilthul ; her, icli l)in 
Ein geiytliolit! per.son." 

This or retort is not in the Lecamenm, but is borrowed 
with the situation from the master song. 

^ 38. OmiNsions and Changes. — It will be observe<l that the 
oriirinal does not abouinl in incidents out of which a farce could 
be constructed. The plight of the abbot is ludicrous enough, 
but it is not sufficient in itself to make a whole play. Therefore 
Sachs sketches, from the few hints in Boccaccio, a picture of 
life at a robV)er baron's castle, such as existed in his own day. 
As stated before (^ 3(5) no reference is made to the knight's 
deprivation of his possessicms and the restitution of them 
through the pleadings of tlie friendly abbot. This, Sachs 
perceived, added nothing to the etlecti veness of the situation. 
His baron has held his castle all his life. Other changes in the 
material adapted are slight. Instead of the baron's sending a 
troope)' to waylay the a))lK)t, he comes to surprise Ir'm in person, 
and makes his eiupiiries on the instead of in the castle. 
The "edelmon's" train is reduced to two men and the .bbot's 
to one, for the sake of simi)licity. The first scene in the 
dungeon, Slein/ttr, p. 592, 1. 7-15, is niiide part of the scene (m 
the road, p. 5!)2 : tlie second visit, 11. 10-30, is also ommitted. 
The robbei- does not mlopt a disguise as in Boccaccio. 

§ 39. Additious to Original Material.— The additions are 
numertms and important, and illustrate Sachs' method of 
rounding out a play and making the })arts aonsistent with one 




another. He lias so little space at his disposal within the 
narrow limits of the Fastnaehtspitl, that he loses no time in 
introducing the motif of the play. The knight's first speech 
shows that supplies have run very low, 11. 2, 47 ; matters are in a 
desperate pass, or they would not think of seizing the person of 
a chui-ch dignitary, who is a " Gef iirster Abt," 1. ll.'l. The 
cii'cumstance of the rohher making his unwilling guest swear an 
" Vrphed," 1. 8{)(), shows liis anxiety to avoid any unpleasant 
conse(juences of his ])i'ank. This pact is not in the original. 
The first three speeches are addition pure and simple. The 
sayings of Schrannnfritz deal with the hardships of their life, 
those of Hanswurst emphasize its recklessness. This is a 
development of the hint (§ 22) Stciiifnr. , p. 501, 1. 17 : " ircr in 
<ler (fci/oit najf vn'l <(b fjif'n;/ oder r(\>/t (l''ii <'v Jierddhcf." The 
orighial //?(>/(/" of revenge for wrongs is omitted, as there is no 
mention of wrongs in the play, and the sufficitntly ir.telligihle 
one of poverty is substituted. That this seizure of the abbot is 
no isolated act of violence is indicated by Sachs making the 
robber chief ascend the tower to watch the I'oad, 1. 17H; again, 
the troopers are sent off to catch a stray merchant, 11. 223-285, 
and return unsuccessful, 11. 2X6-288. Indeed, this relati{m of 
the baron to his men forms, in this play, an a[)pr()ach to an 
underplot. In his second speech, 1. 8(), the nolileman tells his 
men of the abbot's approach, and asks if he would not be " ein 
(J lifer feister Rciijci' " for them. Wursthans rejoices at the 
prospect, but Schrammfritz asks if his information is certain. 
The knight assures them that he is correct, and tells them to 
take everything necessary for such a capture: "^4/.s' sirivk, 
Bretiimv viul Da inucii stock" Wursthans replies exultingly 
that all is in readiness. Schrammfritz says that two are 
coming, and an ambush is laid, 1. 80 ft". All this is Sachs' way 
of ex])anding dramatically the statement in Steinhiiwel, p. 5f)l, 
1. 24: " Chi no ro}i Tocco Zf"iri,^'sni hurt iric (lev reich ahtc k'ime, 
der bald seine iicrze. ni ikI Ji'icz (jciclit." 

§ 40. Analysis of the "Motivieruiij?." — Sachs is not working 
carelessly. The abliot nmst travel as becomes a great dignitary. 
Wursthans says, 1. 08 f . : 

" Ich wil mit nieinei' Biiclisen sehlagen 
Den Munnich von seim Holwlwagen. " 



I 1 


But Sachs' stage apparently did not admit a wagon ; so 
when Schrannn fritz catclies sight of the abbot and his man tliey 
have dismounted, 11. 75-7 7 : 

" Secht, Herr, dort koinmen zwen z\i fusz ; 
Vom Wtigii er ab sfun gstandeii imiss, 
Dor Weg ist tietf, no ist er schwer. " 

At line 89 they enter on foot. It is no unskillful device. 
Again, to prepare us for the consideration which is shown for 
the abbot, he is raised above the rank of the Italian prelate. 
The l)aron forbids the use of violence in the capture, 1. 67 ; 
" Weil er <iach einer inf vom AdeC The abliot says himself, 

" Mein Add kan ich audi liey briiigen, 
Etlelinan .spridit, 
Soseit jr dii (iefiirster Abt. " 

A large part of the capture scene, 11. cS9-l()2, is an expansion 
of Ste'mhiv, p. 592, 1. 11 : " Der ahte ah eyn tveifi man tkete 
seinen kohen iibermut nyder leget viul n'o er hin ritte irti sagef 
vnnd zeivissen fhet." As stated above (§ 3.S) the scene is changed 
from the dungeon to the road, and the questions are taken partly 
from the master-song. An anuising addition, which is all Sachs 
own, and occurs only in the play, is Heintz, the Alibot's servant. 
He enters with his master, discussing the dangers of the road. 
Heintz asserts that they are perfectly safe, but that he would 
fight if they wer» attacked. The a])bot retorts, 1. 94 ft! : 

" I)u s:i;j;st vvol, Heintz, lueiii lidior Knodit, 
l)u l)iHt eiii Kcditer hindenn Ofen, 
Da die ^Vul•st vud diu Huriiig trofen, 
Vnd bey der feisten Klostersuppen," 

When lie test comes, lu' does not open Ids mouth, except 

once, 1. 14() f. : 

" I ast mir zu frideu mdnen Ilermi 
Oder jr konit in .schwereii Ijiin." 

Whereupon Wursthans cufts him into silence and makes one 
of those plays on " Ban " and " Bolm " of which Sachs is so 
fond. This character, Heintz, is used in Bote usee then as a link 
between the invisible abl)ot and the audience; innnediately 
after the baron's directions to Wursthans, 1. ]()8 ft'., he appears 



' ™ 



and contrasts with comic petulance his present state with his 
cloister life : here it is like a " Hundshochzeit." " Ivi Jdoster 
aher asz wit ivoi," 1. liSo. 

S 41. further Analysis of No. 27. — The next scene, also, is 
pure addition, and at tirst ^dance superfluous. It is in reality 
necessary. From 1. 149 it ai)})ear3 that Wursthans took the 
abl)ot's portmanteau. He says to Heintz: Gih Iter den Wcfschger, 
er ist nit dew." And this is the cause of their half mutiny, as 
shown in 1. 194 f. : 

" Es hat una vnsei- Jmiokherr jetz, 
Dess Abts wetschger audi zu jm gnoyimeii." 

The robber had done this designedly, for at the end he 
restores the abl»ot his property, cf. 1. 299 : 

" Nemt wider liin ewru Wetschger ebfui." 

Sachs follows the Decameron in making the restitution; 
cf. Steinhw, p. 598, 11. \U 'M. This scene shows the troopers 
discontented, ready to change lords for more money, yet obeying 
the baron's orders without a word at the very moment they are 
ready to rob him. This cii'cumstance helps out the conception 
of life in the robber castle. There is not a Innt of it in the 
Decameron. Dramatically it places some sort of interval 
between the ablxit's capture and his cure. In the Decameron it 
is a month, and the"ede!mon" says in Sachs, 1. 153: " Salt jr 
eii\ Monaf hey viir hleihe,)." And at his release, 1. 2<S9 f. : 

" Aeh, niein Herr Abt, Gott gsegn ewr (inail 
Eiii Moiiat laiKj das gut wildbad !" 

Towards the close the troopers revert to a tone of contentment 
in their speeches, 11. 335-838. Immediately upon this follows 
a Botenscene. The " edelmon " sees Heintz passing, calls him to 
him, and bids him tell him how his master fares. The course of 
treatment is described, 11. 252-2G5. The baron makes merry 
over it, and repeats the word-play on " Ban," 1. 2()8 (§ 40). He 
then orders Heintz to bring the abbot to hiui, 1, 275 : 

" Das ich jin gesegne das Bad." 


Heintz toadies to the roUber l)y saying tliat poetical justice 
has overtaken the abbot because the hitter has iuiprisoned many 
a monk : 

" l)er (Ireynal fri'tinmer ist denn er. " 

There is no hint of this in Steinhowel. There Chino himself 
brings the abltot out of his prison. The circumstance of the 
abbot's feeing the troopers is not in the source. It gives occasion 
for a comic speech. When Schrammfritz gets his honorarium, 
he says, 1. 'M I . inten<ling to be polite : 

" Deo gratiay, inoiii Hcri', haht elic. 
Wenn jr Molt, mogt jr badcn mehr. " 

§ 42. Cliarftoter-Drawinff. — The charactei's are well dift'ereu- 
tlated. The " Edelnion " is a (Joi-man Robin Hood rai.sed in 
rank, who can giv^e and tak«^ a rough joke eipially well. The 
prehite is an inipei-ious lord abbot, fond of good living, with 
plenty of spirit and good huinoui'. He sutlers no loss of dignitj'' 
in his ridiculous captivity. Even his captor sa3^s, 1. 348 : 

" Ei' iat eiu giitei' fnunincr Mann." 

Heintz is the c)"inging servant, always careful to preserve a 
whole skin and a full skin. I^]ven the tro )pers are distinct 
types : Schrammfritz is evidently the older, ([uieter man ; he is 
cauti(Mis, and dwells on the hardships which tliey encounter; ho 
is more experienced, and catches sight of th(> abbot first ; he is 
married and full of strange oaths, II. 811, 8:H. Wursthans, on 
the other hand, is impetuous and : it is a word and a blow 
with him : he is the leader in the mutiny, und ready to knock 
the abbot out of his wagon. It is he who carries out the 
practical joke upon the captured priest, and he enters into it 
with great gusto. It is he, not Schrannnfritz, Avho calls attention 
to the abbot's voracity and enjoys the fun of the situation. 
Schrammfritz nowhere gives evidence of high spirits. 

§ 43. Adaptation to tli« Stage. — The play was evidently 
written for the theatre, and is one of the ver\- best in construction. 
There is no prologue: it beiiins apparently with the purpose of 
producing an illusiim. The close is comic, as in No. 72, I. 379 ff. 



Aft(^r speaking to his men, the knij]fht turns to the audience, 
and says, 1. 845, that he will be happy to take any one of tlieni 
who needs to be reduced into liis baths on the same terms. 
Thei-e is no moral application. 


§ 44. Souree of No. 41 Dec. VIII. 6. — No. 41. Dfr (f!^foIrv 
pachev dated Dec. (>th, 1552. The source Avas discovered by Fritz 
Neumann ; cf. Goetze, vol. C3/64, xiv. : " /?? der Zelfwrhrift fiir 
Ver(jl(4r/HnHlf' Liff('r(ifiir()M('hi<'hte ( Bd. 1, He ft '2,) (wiM Fritz 
Nfitwdini <li('n/'t'hsf(' Gcxclilckte desackten Tacjcs im Dcrrnneroiw 
idfi QiK'llc fvr das ,^/ Fdstuachtspiel riaeh." In vol. 42/43, viii., 
our editor mentions a mastersong dealing with the same 
• subject. M. (}. !), Bl. 5 : Dresden Hs. M., 190 Bl. 89!). This has 
not been available for comparison, and it may be stated once for 
all that, as most of the mastersongs are still in manuscript, it is 
only occasionally that I have been able to show theii- relaticms 
to the plays. 

§ 45. Synopsis of Dec. VIII. «. — This forms the second of the 

Oalandrin series (§ ())• Calandrin has a custom of going to his 

farm ev-eiy year to slaughter and cure a swine. (Jnce when his 

wife is sick, he makes the journey alone. Bruno and Butt'elmacho 

plot, al<mg with the parson, to have their spoi't with him. 

When Calandrin shows them the pork, Bruno advises him to 

sell it, hav<j a jolliticati<m with the proceeds, and tell his wife 

that it was stolen. He refuses, but invites them to supper with 

a very bad m-ace. Thev decline. Afterwards, witli the parson's 

help, they make him drunk at the tavern at their expense. He 

leaves the house-door open when he goes home. Bruno and 

Buffelmaclio convey the swine to the parsonage. On awaking 

next day Calandrin discovers his loss. He tells the conspiratoi-s 

of it ; they are slow to believe him, and make him swear to the 

truth of it over and over again. At last they promise to help 

him recover nis property by a ginger ordeal ; Bruno is given 

forty shillings with which to puechase the pills and a certain 

kind of wine. Calandrin invites all his suspected neighbors to 

a feast. They assemble in a circle under the linden-tree, Bruno 


harangues them conceniinf,' the stolen \)i^, exphiins the nature 
of tlie ordeal, and all a^^ree to take tiie pills. Of course 
Calandrin gets the l)itter j)ill, and is forced to spit it out. 
Bruno says that yiuuj betoken nothing, and gives him a second 
dose, with the same result. Then it is plain, in spite of his 
protests of innocence, that Calandrin has stolen his own pig. 
The wags assert that Calandrin is only trying to conceal the 
fact that he had given the porker to his mistress, and that he 
had confessed as much in his cups. They threaten to tell his 
wife all unless he gives them two fat capons. Calandrin agrees 
to this, and the rogues go off with the fowls and the pork. 

§ 4«. Anulysis of No. 41. — The introduction to the play 
consists of a dialogue between two neighbors, Knol and Drol, in 
which tliey resolve to punish Dol's stinginess by .stealing his 
pig. l)ol, the niggard, enters, 1. 08, and exposes his mean 
disposition in a soliloquy, 11. 68-82. Drol then enters and 
borrows a Hail and maul. Dol lends them grudgingly, but tlatly 
refuses, for fear of his wife, to roast a couple of sausages for his 
friends' entertainment, 11. 101-8. An interval of one night 
elapses before the entrance of the two conspirators, tluring 
which time the swine has been stolen. Knol relates how hy 
carried out tlie trick. To them enter Dol in deep dejection at 
his loss. They refuse to believe in the theft, insist that he is 
hoaxing them, and that he has really given the swine to " Strigel 
Christen," his mistress. The parson, who is supposed to be 
acquainted with the Black Art, 1. 145, enters and promises to 
discover the thief by these means. He fir.'^t demands his pay, 
1. 175, and while Dol has mme oti' the stajje to fetch his hoarded 
five l)atzen, the ])arson explains his device to Knol and Drol. 
They dispose the [)ills so that the harmless ones shall fall to 
their share, and the bitter one be left for their victim. Dol 
comes back witii the money 1. 215, the mutters a burlesque 
incantation in dog- Latin over tlie pills 11. 221-224, and each in 
his turn takes his pill. Dol stands a self-confessed thief from 
his inal)illtv to swallow the aloes, and is finally convinced of the 
fact himself in spite of his common sense objections. He begs 
them not to inform his wife of his exp<jsure, and implores the 
parson's special interposition to bi-eak the news to her. The 



jiarson argiu's in the epilo^aic that " such stiii^'y asses should be 
shod ill just this way." 

§ 47. Voiiations from the Source. — The variati(tns (tl* tiie phiy 
from the story are, in this instance, not so much to he j)!aced 
under the rul)rics of addition, omission, <Sce., as under the; fjeneral 
head of change. Sachs has considered his material as a whole : 
he luis made it entirtdy his own, and then recast it in a new 
shape. Tlie comi)lexi(>n is altered, and ])oints, otiier tliaii tliose 
prominent in the novel, are eiuphasi/ed ; cf. Nos. 42, 02, &c. 
The characters are made ( lerman jx-asants, tlie hur^hers' favourite 
objects of satire. This is not always done, «'. (/., N(». 4(), where 
the characters and story are both allowed to retain their 
di.stinctively Italian colouring. As Neumann ])oints out (Zs. fur 
Vei'ijleicli. Lit. Bd. 1. s. 102), the most im[)()rtant ciian^fes are tlie 
different introiluction and the extended r61e played by the 

^ 48. Different Motif in Introduction. — As we have seen 
before, Sachs' introductions are all his own. He invariably 
makes great alterations there, (§§ 34, 3ft)- In. No- 41 the first 
part has been entirely remodelled. T]\(i victim of the practical 
joke in the Italian story, Calaiulrin, very ])ro})erly to 
expend, the money for the swine in a del)aucli ; but Dol has 
accepted his neighbours' lujspitality, and now he is unwilling to 
make any return; 11. 20-35. To deprive .such a man of his 
porker seems merely poetic justice for his stinginess, 1. 30. This 
motif commends itself more to the (Jrermanic mind : Calandrin 
is iiierel}'^ a simpleton ; Dol is a fool and a niggard. It is 
impossible not to sympathize with Calandrin ; he is hardly 
treated. But we are prejudiced against Dol V)efore he appears 
upon the stage, by the accounts which his neighbours give of his 
meanness. He strengthens this prejudice himself by the 
revelation of his character in the soliloquy 1. 03 ft'., in which he 
refuses to a^iknowledge the obligation to hospitality under 
which he lies, 1. 70. His conduct in the borrowing scene 1. cS3 tf. 
is all of a piece with this ; therefore when he is robbed we feel 
that he has only received his deserts, and when further he is 
brought to believe himself the culprit, we only consider it a 
good joke. 



^ 49. Change for the Sake of Concentration. — Another chan^'e is 
in tho device by wliich tlie abstrnetion of the pig is accoinplislied. 
In tho s^ory, the jokers make Cahvii<lnii (h'unk, and as he does 
not close the house-door, they are aole to make away with the 
porker in the nif]fht. In the phiy, Sachs does not attempt to 
represent the stealing: that is done behind the scenes. Drol 
agrees to go and borrow something from Do!, 1. 42 f. This 
enables Knol to carry oli' his booty. In the veiy next scene we 
learn that the riisc, has lieen successful, 1. 110. 'Phis treatment 
on the part of Sachs results in simplicity and C(mcentration. 
Had he dime otherwise, wc; should probably hav'e been led aside 
by a scene in the tavern which would not directly help on the 
story. The succession of events here is nipid, without being in 
the slightest waj' confused. 

§ 60. Inalysii of the Ordeal Scene. — Besides this substitution 
is of a difierent7no/i/', there is another cause for the change in the 
complexion of the play, — the greater prominence given to Dol's 
fear <.)f his wife, and the expansion of the ordeal scene. Both 
themes are favourite ones with Sachs. To understand this, we 
must consider the character of the pai'son, Herr Hans. He is 
spoken of, (11. 113-115) as the ccmfederate of Knol and Drol, 
before he makes his a[)])earance. He is given Bruno's part. To 
discover the thief, they have recourse to the Black Ai't. German 
peasants could not think of such an ordeal : so the parson, as the 
learned man, the scholar, plans and carries out the whole trick. 
Dol expects, at first, that the parson can bring the lost property 
back, 1. 152. The latter modestly disdains such power, but says 
he is able to detect the thief, 1. 154 f. He then explains the 
nature of the test, 1. IGO ft'., but recjuires a fee. Dol is gotten 
rid of by the expedient of sending him olT for his money : he 
has none by him. While his l)ack is turned the parson explains 
the plot for the benefit of the clowns and the audience. 
11. 190-212, Then a speech is thrown in, to make the transition 
gradual; they hear Drol coming back before he actually 
appears. The parson then speaks a comic incantation over 
the "pilien" in dog-Latin, 1. 220 ff! Sachs seems fond of 
this sort of burlesque. For a similar instance, cf. No. 74, 1. 379 ff'., 
where the same mixture of Latin and German occurs. In No. 


34 tho incantation is n l)in-les(|uc, l»ut it is in (ij^rnian, 1. 217 ff. 
TIhj parson iTcapitnlatcs the conditions Inicflv; the ordoal is 
siii)iiIiii«Ml, only i'(»ni' characters take part instead oi' the 
unlimited nundter in the Decameron. The manipnhition of the 
pills occurs only once, instead of twice. Hut each of these 
characters is ^ivon one or two spi-eches, and the sta^^' dii'ections 
inform us that each actually eats his j)ill. Dol's tm-n comes 
last ; and, as soon as he is discovered to he the thief, there is an 
outburst of virtuous indi^niation on the pait of the real cul[>iits 
for having heen wion^fully suspected. Diol threatens personal 
violence, hut Knol proposes a crueller reveiifre, namely to tell 
Dol's wife that he has given the pork to his mistress. The 
following forty-five lines are lai-gely addition on the ])art of 
Sachs; in the Decameron there is no outhui'st of fear 
corres[)onding to Dol's speech, 1. 27H tt'., cf. Sh''nih)i\ p. 4!)4, 
1. 27 f. Dol had already (1. 101 ft'.) given expi-ession to his fear 
of his wife. This is brought out again in the scene in wdiich he 
discovers that he has been robbed, I. 140 f. Then Dol is given 
a second speech in the last scene, I. 30(5 ft'., in which he shows he 
is afraid U) give away a single sausage because his wife has 
wanted them, but gives his hoarded "gulden" instead. 
These he had hidden away for feai* of his wife;, I. ISO. It is 
such a notorious affaii" that the others speak of it, 1. 20(5. Jn the 
Decameron, Calandrin is alk)wed to say little ; the most is said 
by Bufl'elmacho, and part of his speech refers to another story, 
(J)ec. Vlll. 3,) in which Calau'lrin is the hero. The ti'ial-scene of 
the ginger is made prominent by the repetition, not as in 
Sachs' drama, by giving a speech to each actor. The gain in 
concentration and picturesque effect is noticeal)le in the case of 
the Fastnachtspiel. 

S 51. Mise-en-Scene of No. 41. — The staire-directions deal 
principally with gestures, expression, &c. For instance, 1. 123, 
''Hernudi Dol kiiwht traivrig \' 1. 14(5, " Herman Dol lichf ncin 
hendt (( u.f." &c. ; cf. 1. 278 stage-direction. When the man(Kuvre 
with the })ills comes, the dirt^ctions are very explicit. Dol, to 
slunv his eagerness, runs off', 1. 189; cf. 1. 215. The parson, the 
originator of the trick, 1. 190, sets out the ginger ; thei'e is a 
direction for the payment of the money, 1. 215 ; the parson 



soloinrily takes his pliicc, 1. 220. When DoI'h tViVn coinoH. wo 
have three H('))iinite actions; I. 251 : Hn'mnv dol (frt'iji't zitj' Sic, 
I. 25*i : " tfo'iiKi II lh)l iriirjff dm jiit/Krr tin iiidiil h'ln riiml 
iriiler, .sic/if sdirr," This evidently implies Facial contortions on 
the part of the a(-Lor. Then, I. 255, "Hcrninn Dol sprifft (tls ansz," 
&c. Th«' situation is lu'oadly Farcical. When the supposed thief is 
di.s<'overed, Sachs niid\es one of the suspected, Drol, exjiress his 
ano-ei' hv trvint; to ItetMii an afl'iav, I. 2UJi, "('nnfz Ihol (iir.ifft 
i nt iv<'ln\' atid Knol has to si-parate them; I. 270, " Hcinfz 
Knot fcrrt fiidfcr." Dol e.\i)resses his ea^'erness or f^^ar by 
running on and ott' the stage ; oi<le II. l.Sf), 214, 317. 

§ 62. Representation of Rowildorment. — The C()rres[K*ndence8 
are not close, nor do the characters call for much remark. As 
we have seen in the iirst Calandrin play. No. !<!, (5 12) the 
simpleton is at last hi'ought to lielieve in an ahsui'dity afi^ainst 
his better ju<l<,nnent. These two Hues express the mental 
struggle excel! Mitly, II. 2S3 f. : 

" Hal) moin tag gHli)leii inaiicli(!rley, 
Icli war al)r hoII) allmil daihuy." 

Cf. No. K), I. 187. The nmt'i rieriiiKj is very good, with the 
exception that the elaborate trick is ])roduced at too short 
notice. The same fault might be t'oun<l with the Decameron. 


I 53. Source of No. 42, in Dec. III. 8.- Ni>. 42. Der Faivr 
run dem Fegfeiver ; dated Dec. 0th, 1552. (Joetze gives the 
source, Neudr. ^2/48, Einl. vii. : " Der Bauer im Feffefeuer 
stamnit dus dc.,i Derarneron den Boccaccio hei SteinhiJivel Bl. 
121 "(III., S,) Bihl'ioihek den Stuif</arfer lAtteraT. Vereins 
Band SI, Seite iilG'' The mastei-song mentioned in the same 
connection, I have not been able to obtain. 

^ 64. Synopsis of I)ce. III. 8.— The contents of the tale are as 
follows. A hypocrital abbot of Tuscany lays a plot to seduce 
the pretty wife of Ferondo, a rich, stupid countryman. The 
wife comes to the abbot for confession, and complains of her 
husband's jealousy. The abbot says he can cure him by sending 


liiin to |)urf,'atory : lio must <H»' and Im' raised up nffn'm l)y the 
abbot's praytTs. His rcwaivi is to l>f Iht Iovo. 'I'fio wit'o 
a«^rt'«!s to his jwoposal, on condition that in»r luishand ht; disposed 
of first. Kcrondo t'onios to the abbey, iscb'u^^fcd intoins('nsil)ilty 
and buried in a vault. The al>l)<)t and a ti'usted monk tVom 
Bologna take him out secretin and jMit him in the convent ))rison. 
Next day the Jibbot be;;in^, tlie intrii'ui' with l^'ei'ondo's wife. 
The Holot,niesi! monk ^oes to Ferondo's cell and makes him 
believe that he is in pin"<^oitory. After ten months ln' is needed 
to father the abbot's (;liild. \\v is a^^^ain <li"Ui;^ed and replaced 
in the vault. At the morning' s(!rvice he wakes, and tlu; abbot, 
by a pious fraud, makes it (Uit to be a miracle. 

§ 55. AnalysiN of No. 42. — This was Sachs' matei'ial, and, as 
}ns treatment is s[)ecially characteristic, I sliall not ajM)lo^dze 
for followin<^ it in ^rciater <h'tail. '^Phe introduction is more 
than usually careful. The Abbot of Ck»rtal and Sii- Ulrich 
the m(mk enter, discu-<sin<^ matrhnony. The loi-d abbot re;^rets 
that he sluill have no heir, and the monk b)-in<'s him back to an 
opinion more betittinji:^ a cU^ric ^ j relu!arsin<.j tlu^ pains and 
penalties of we(hled life. ThereupiMi a peasant woman eiuers- 
complaininrf of bei* husband's jealousy and abuse. The abl)()t 
promisfvs to send him to pui'<^atory and tlien bi-ino- him to life 
afifain. Then ihe monk and tlu^ abl)ot lay tlie trap for the 
jealous liusband ; he comes, is t^iven a of dru^fijed wine, 
and, while two jicfisants are settlin<^' their (hies with tlie a))bot, 
falls down insensible. The [)easants lament over him and carry 
him out. The abbot insti'ucts Ulrich to ^"o ]iy ni^ht, take the 
peasant from his ^rave and so abuse him that he will tliink that 
he is in pur<;atory. Then follows otu- of tliose amusinijf scenes 
in which the victim, asj^ainst his better judgment and common 
sense, is brouf]fht to believe in an absurdity (§ '")2) ; the peasant, 
thinking that he is dead, ix.sks foolish (juestions, and is ridiculed 
and beaten by the monk. He is then restored to lif(!, and 
fricfhtens his neifjfhbors by Jn's resurrection, Init linally 
explains everythinj:^ to their satisfaction. 

§ 66. Omissions. — It is at once evident that Sachs has not 
made use of all his matei-ial. The imjiortant onii.ssion is 



the motif of the abbot's love for the peasant's wife. Instead of 
iiist, ^reed prompts the action. Tlie kernel of the little comedy- 
is the farcical situaticm of a living man believing that he is dead. 
It was this centi'al sitviation which attracted Sachs, and he has 
made it sufficiently comic. In another treatment of the same 
material, in the mastersong, he has dwelt more upon the intrigue ; 
see Gtetze, vol. 42/48, vii. But this is not intended for })ublic 
representation, as a Fastnaclitspiel would be ; consecpently, the 
long dialogue between the priest and the lady at confession is 
curtailed, and all reference here and elsewhere to a possible 
liaison is left out. Besides this, the scenes in the dungeon where 
the abbot tells his dupe that he is to l)e released^^^, and those in 
the church where the pn^tended miracle takes place, in a word, 
all that is repulsive in the Italian story — the hypocrisy and 
religious fraud, is set to one .side. The residue is a rollicking 
practical joke which, so far from harming anyone, does a gi'cat 
deal of good, l)y curing tlie peasant of his cruelty towai'ds his 

§ 57. Additions. — In this case, Sachs' additions are important. 
Ot his own invention, are the two neighbours, Eberlein 
Griiltzenbrey and Nickel liubendunst, who come to pay their 
dues, 1. liSl, lament over the ])easaut's death, 1. 1()<S, and testify 
to his restoration to life, 1. 8S!> fi". Tlie admirable short scene, 
11. 153-1(15, where the stupid countryman brings the abl.tot a 
basket of green beri'ies which he tliinks will ripen by and by, 
is not found in the original. Nor is there any hint of the 
introductory dial<)gue between the altbot and the monk, 11. 1-51. 
All the additions in this, as in the other plays, tend towards the 
rounding out of the drama, (§ 8H) towards makuig it complete 
and consistent with itself. It would be a grave eri'or to suppose 
that they are ever meaningless oi- inartistic. The introductory 
conversation tui'ns on the unhappiness of man-ied life, and at 
the end of it th(^ unfortunate wife a{)j)eai*s as an illusti'ation and 
living connnentary ; see 11. 42-4(5. It is in keeping with his 
position as " j,a^fiirster Abt," I. H, that the churchman desires an 
heir, 1. 18 ff., and that the peasants are expected to pay their 

(!) Referred to only l.y Ulrieh, 1. \U'l 




convent diiers, 1. 181 ff"., " Warumh hrinrjt jr nit e/wer giilt ?" 
Tlie abbot's anger on this occasion because the money is not 
forthcoming, is consistent with the avaricious character Sachs 
assigns to him. He asks the peasant wife for pay, 1. 100 : " Mein 
Fraiv, ivas ivird denn nein mein lakn." The introduction has 
a natural connection witli what follows. The peasants are 
evidently brought on to show what effect the husband's s\70on 
pi'oduces upon the on-lookers ; Ulrich and the abbot would not 
do, because they are in the secret, and would naturally express 
neither astonishment nor grief. The peasants' remarks upon 
their neighbour's death are ridiculous in the extreme ; after the 
abbot has pronounced him dead, (^riJltzenbrey says, 1. 198 ff. : 

" Bist (lu denn hin inn dieser nolit ? 
Sey wir erst nechtn bey nandof gsessen 
Vnd haben ein putter Milch gesaen 
Wie baldt ists vmb eln Menscli geschelien." 

The introduction of the peasants may also have been a device 
to get the su})p()sed dead man carried off' the stage. The final 
scene, 11. 889-440, is an expansion, in Sachs' usual manner, of the 
statement, Sfeinhw, p. 224, 1. 22 ff. : 

§ 68. The Honk, the Ahbot and the Peasant.— Again, the 

Bolognese monk, who, in the Decameron, is a mere tool, is given 
a name and made a real character in Sachs. He makes his 
first appearance in hot disputation with his abbot ; and, fearlessly, 
in true monkish fashiim, opposes him where he is in the wrong. 
It is with a trace of sarcastic humour that he almost refuses to 
enter into the abbot's design, 1. 135 f. Then, 1. 234, he shows 
his sense of fun, and in 1. 254 stage-direction, he terrifies the 
peasant by roaring at him. Although, throughout this dungeon 
scene, Sachs follows the Decameron closely, he adds many 
touches of his own to the picture. The al)lK)t is represented as 
a choleric, avaricious gentleman who is fond of his joke; he 
refers to his family, 1. 14, and flies into a passion when the 
peasants fail to bring their dues, 1. 181. There is an imperious 
air about him. Thi-ougliout the play, Ulrich ad<lresses him as 
" Gnediger Herr," 11. 5, 16, and I. 8, calls him " ein gef iii-ster Abt," 
cf. II. 42, 119, 174. He regards the performance in the dungeon 
as a good joke, 11. 240 243, cf. I. 133 f., an<l the fact that he goes 



himself to the cell to see Ulrieli cany out the joke for tlie fun 
of the thinnf, points intlie same direction. Tiiis trait is wanting 
entirely' in the original : in it the abbot goes to the prison, Vmt 
only to make his framl more complete ; Sachs makes his purpose 
in going, to see that the joke he has planned be carried into 
effect. The peasant is a great simpleton. Boccaccio merely 
says so, but Sachs represents him, on his very first appearance, 
as doing a stupid act, (§ 21) namely, making a present of 
gi'een berries which will ripen if put in sti'aw. He cannot call 
things by their pro])er names: for instance, he says " schlegel 
birn " 1. 155, instead of " Reg(»l birn " 1. 15f), and persists in 
calling the abbot "Hen- Dabt," 11. 153, 1()2, 17J), 373. This is 
one of Shakespeare's methods of denoting stupidit}^ ; it is 
sufficient to mention Dogberry and Bottom. 

I 59. The Diiiig-eoii Scene. — The scene on whi"h Saclis has 
spent his strength is the one in the dungeon belv't\ "^Irich and 
the peasant, 11. 243-300. Sachs hns followed Boccaccio closely, 
and in some instances inn)ro\'ed upon his dialogue. Such 
im})rovement upon the source is more marked when the poet 
deals with sources of a lower literary level, foj* instance, those 
drawn from the chap-books. When the peasant is coming out 
of his trance, 1. 247 : " Der jw/ivr ruiiiMerf sich, ftfeht <i.uf, vund 
greijft vmh i^ick av die viev art vnd sjn'ichf." This is just what 
a man would do in such a situation, and the " business," to use 
the technical word, is put in by Saclis for comic effect. In 
11. 251-3 he is again much more natural than Boccaccio ; tl^e 
peasant wants to know how lie came in, and calls for his it'e. 
The little circumstance of his not understanding the Lati''^ -• 1 
Pior/nforliu)), 1. 259, is also Sachs' own, aiid humorous in eflec; • 

" Aeh siig mirs Uimlsoli, ieli hit dich <lfiun ! 
Ich kan warlit'li k(;iii Tiiiperdein." 

These touches add decidedly to the comicality and naturalness 
of the situation : cf. also 11. 300-12, 302, 327 -J), 334. 'J'he two 
peasants, his neigh l)ours, are simply the stupid countrymen ; but 
their stupidity is not their prime quality, as it is in the Inisband's 
case. Their names ai-e ludicrous, Griilfzcnhre}/, &c., recalling 
the Shakespearian custom, as in Oatcake, Ague-cheek, &c. 


§ 60. The Mise-en-Scene — The stage-directions are important 
in tliisplay. L. 52 : " Herr Ulrich schaudt nausz," &c.; between 
this and 1. 59, lie has let the woman in : " Herr Ulrich hrinqet 
die Pewriii." Tliis is plainly a little device to obviate the 
awkwardness of having the woman come on without any 
warning whatever. When Ulrich goes to fetch the wine, 1. 168 : 
" Der Aht giht jm ein schlussel ;" 1. 173: "Herr Vlr'ich knmht, 
hrinc/f daft glas mit tolm ;" 1. 179: " Der Fawr iriueld es ah 
ausz,<fiht dem Aht das glas wider." Then, 1. 181, " Die zwen 
Pawren kammen ;" the "tolm" takes effect 1. 189: " Heivlz 
Buppel felt aiif der haneh nider ;" his friends try to lift him, 
1. 191: " Helnfz Dilppel I'd he tit vnd fm fallen, sie, rulteln 
i7i;" it is useless; 1. 192: "Der Aht sehaiit zn im" and 
pronounces an unfavorable opinion, 1. 219, " Sie tragen den 
todten (d)." All these show that the author had an audience 
constantly in mind, and even if the play was never acted, or if 
the actors did not carry out his directions, he knew, at least, !iow 
a play should be acted. The actions indicated are what would 
be naturally expected under the circumstances. The following- 
passages, showing the lamb-like obedience of Diippel, are also 
sufficiently comical :— 1. 270: "Der Miinrh niihht jn helm, 
ImcJd jn vber benck," and 1. 273 : " Der Pawr huckf sieh vhert 
benck, der Miiiich haudf jn mit ruten." Wine and l)read are 
brought on the stage 1. 313, and there is drinking 11. 332, 359 ; 
all these manoeuvres are intended to produce an im|)ression of 
reality. The action is lively 1. 404. Diippels neighbors tliij)k 
they see a ghost : " Sie zinen fliehen. Heintz Diippd sehreidf." 


^61. Source of Xo. 43 — No. 43. Die listh/ Hvlerln, datoH 
Dec. 17th, 1552. Neud. 42/43, p. viii, Gcetze gives the following 
note upon the source: "Der Diehier hat (jam naeh Boeeaeeios 
Decameron VII. 6, gearheitet." No other treatment of same 
material by Sachs is known. The plot is as follows :— 

§ 62. Synopsis of Dec. VII. 6. — An unsatisticd wife takes a 
gallant named Leonetta, and another called Lamj)recht forces 
himself upon hei". Once, in hei" husband's absence, she sends for 


her favourite, and while they are together, Laniprecht comes and 
demands admittance. Leonetta conceals himself wliile the 
latest arrival is with the lady ; at this juncture, the husband 
comes home, l^he problem is, how to get two men out of her 
room without beincj discovered. She bethinks herself and tells 
Lamp]"echt to draw his sword and go down stairs, vowing 
vengeance, and not to speak to her husban<l. He does so, and 
the husband coming up, finds his wife terribly frigiitened at the 
door of her room. She tells him that Lamprecht L id pursued 
some man into tiic house, and to prevent murder, she had 
hindered the would-be murderer from entering the room where 
his intended victim taken refuge. 1'he husband is gulled 
by this tale, brings the young man out, ami treats him 

i^ 63. Analysis of No. 43. — ^The })Iay begins with the day on 
which the trick is played. The lady gives her maid orders to 
bring the gallant. She is warned l)y the servant that she runs 
a risk, and while admitting that she has had many narrow 
escapes, still she feels that she has been equal to every emergency. 
The maid goes on hei- errand, and, in one of those monologues 
which Sachs inserts to denote the lapse of time, the faithless wife 
reflects on her career. Leonetta, the lover, arrives ; they soon go 
off* together to examine a shirt which she has made for him. The 
lapse of time is represented by the maid's speech, which throws 
further light upon the lady's amours. Leonetta and Lisabetha 
have just come back, discussing the gift, Avhen the maid 
interrupts them with the news of Lamprecht's arrival. The 
lady tells ln'r faxoiu-ite to conceal himself, and goes out; the 
gallant gives expression to his fear in a monologue and exit. 
The lady re-ap])ears with the second lover, Lamprecht. Before 
they have exchanged many words, the messenger maid 
amiounces the unexpected arrival of the husl )and. The lady gives 
Lamprecht substantially the same advice as in the Decamercm ; 
he meets the master of the house on the stacfe, but does 
not answer his ([iiestion. Laudolph,' the husband, interrogates 
his wife ; she is too frightened to answer at first, but manages 
at length to tell him the story of the adventure ; the young 
man comes from his hiding, and this scene of amitv, which is 


hurried over in the Decameron, is dwelt on and much expanded 
by Sachs. The close is characteristic ; the husband takes the 
gallant off to look at his treasures, and the wife goes out to 
oversee the evening meal. The maid " komhf vnd hesrideust," 
winding up with forebodings that intrigue, like murder, must 

§ 64, Omission of tlie Obscene. — The play has undergone far 
greater changes than appear from the mere parallelism of plots. 
The events are the same, but the complexion is totally ditlerent. 
The most important omission is in the scenes between the lady 
and the two lovers, 11. (50 -174. In Boccaccio all these interviews 
take })lace in the kuly's bed-chamber, and Leonetta is, of course, 
a concealed witness of the second one. There is no suggestion 
of such a disgusting idea in Sachs. The wife is faithless, but 
she gives no expression to sensual love in talking to Leonetta. 
Sachs was acting with a purpose ; his plan is to show the guilt of 
such a situation, as well as its danger. Any inference may be 
drawn from the fact that the lady I'etires from the stage with 
Le(metta, but that is not Sachs' fault. The (episode of the sldrt 
is an invention of Sachs to avoid the; indeeencj' of his original ; 
for a similar reason, Lam[)recht is not allowed any timt^ at all 
with the lady in private. The maid inteiTupts them at the very 

§ 65. Additions. — As usual, the first scene furnishes the 
rnofif of the play, and is largely or altogether Sachs' own 
invention. The only hint for 11. 1-60 is Sfflnhir, p. 436,1. 8: 
" I II dcin (lie frawe iiarJi irem liehen Liencffo HrJi'tchef, (his er 
keiiie." T\\c maid, as a character and not a shadow, is pure 
addition : also her speeches, 11. S7-98 and 809-880. 1'here are 
no hints for Lisa))etha's speeches 11. 41 (iO or 2f)5-80<S, or for the 
s})eech of Leonetta, 11. 118 -]2<S, which is inserted to exhibit 
his charactei- still fui'ther. These are the principal additions. 
The phrasal modifications and improvements are too numerous 
to l)e noticed here, but will be taken u[) when consideiing the 
sej)arate characters. 

§ 66. Cliarncter-Drawing:, Ag-neta, Leonetta, Lanipreclit.— The 

prime excellence of this ])lay con.sists in the i-emarkal)le way in 



wliieh the five characters are sketch<Ml und (litt'erentiatorl • the 
tinii<l inaifl, the polti-ooii ^aUant, tlie riifflHif:,'^''alhiiit, the cunring 
wife and the chivalrous husband. First the maid A<vneta ; the 
souhi-ette seems to he the necessary adjmict of an intrigue as 
Amia in No. 40, Ursula in No. 45, Huhhi in No. 84, and Metz in 
No. 28. As the coniichmte, she remonstrates on tlie dann^er 
wlieii ordered to fetcli th(> ijallant, and warns of the conse((uences. 
tn 1. !);^ li". she f(?ars for hei'self, and lon^^s for the time wdien she 
can leave. She is so frightened at lier niastei's a])proacli tliat 
she can liardly stand, I. 15(). Tn a word, she is the trembling 
agent of her mistress, on the side of right Itecause she ilreads 
discovei-y. Leonetta is an arrant coward. All that is expi-essly 
said of him is Sfci ii/in', p. 48(5, 1. 14: " Lfoticffo der fiein wlbes 
nlc/il inittdcr ais die frtiiv bcsinyff," and ]>. 488,1. 3: ' Der 
iimge der ppydcr r«'d n'ol vfrnomcti hrffr dlli't' crwltrockcn als 
der in forvJdc vnd a ihjsI inis dariKich lirr fiirr ijiif</f.' In the 
Decameron \w is not given anvthintj to sav. Here a<xain Sachs 
represents wdiat tlie novel merely states ; ef. § 57. Leonetta's 
first greeting is characteristic : Saclis here goes directly against 
his source because it .suits his jmrpose. in Steinhiiwel, p. 436, 
1. 4, we read : " Licricffo — J)rr sich n'd stin nicii I iesse frolich vnd 
wel za viiUe paldc hi me" In Sachs he is anything but 
"friiiich ;" his first greeting is cold, he says the very least lie 
can to her. His "//»'///" contrasts sharply with Lisabetha's 
" BLsff i}(ir zu fauxenhiud wllU-aud).'' Another would have 
been glad to have the gay lady at his will, but instead of being 
loverlike, )h; asks (pierulously wiiy she has sent for liim, and 
r6min<ls her of tlieir last narrow escape, " Ihf ich hium. 
entninu," &c. She tries to ]»ut some heart into him, but all his 
rejoinder is, 1. 7{) f. : 

" loh l>in niulit fruli-jh wonlen sidcr ; 
So gai' tliett iiii<'!i dio foroht oiitsotztui." 

in his long speech, 11. 118-12S, while the lady has gone oft' 
for Lamprecht, he expresses his fe.ars for his own ])recious 
carcass. He says, 1, 118: '' Jrtzt sfchf (tucli in (jetdhv mciv. 
Leih" He fears, 1. 122, Lamprecht will find him and kill 'aim, 
and \ows never to come back. And at the <lnii'nimrnt,\\hi}w he 
has to represent himself as fleeing from Lam[)recht, lie does it 


iterl • the 
i cunriiig 
leta ; tlic 
trigue as 

I Metz in 
i dang-er 
vheu she 
acJi that 
3 dreads 
)i f^dbes 
''•■ ■' Ikr 
'ken ah 

In tlie 

II Sachs 
p. 486, 
ch rnd 
ig Imt 
east he 



II, and 

hi urti 

all his 

ne oft' 
I'n ho 
oes it 

aptly, in charactei-. In fact, he manages In's part of the 
deception with considoralde adroitness and a certain voluble 
grace. In strong contrast to Leonetta the ''jamjer vuinn," 
11. 231, 27(S, is Lani})recht's " den (dtcnr 1. 91. He is the man of 
the world, the man of expeiience. Leonetta says of him, 1. 1 19 f. : 

" Der in iler Statt liat das geachrey, 
VVie er Avr giii.ste IJiilcr sey." 

The very fact of his forcing his way in, shows his strong 
character. In his second speech, 1. 14(5 tt!, he is sufficiently 
aggressive ; Leonetta had to l)e cheered up and coaxed. When 
danger threatens at tlic husljantl's approach, he l>ristles all over, 
1. 158 f. : 

" Vnd wo er miuh wii<l greiflen an, 
So wil idi jni seyn Manns genug." 

Leonetta's first thought in a similar situation was foi- his 
personal safety. The fury in which Lamprecht makes his exit 
is not all assumed. It is in keeping that, in the wife's fiction, he 
should have the character of the bold aggressor. They are all 
afraid of him. Leonetta fears for his life, when he liears of his 
approach. To Lisabetha he is " strenger Herr," 11. 129, 160 ; 
and Landolph calls him " g'ichzorniy," 1. 267. This agrees with 
Steinhbwel's idea of " vnrichtig," p. 435, 1. 30. 

§ 67. The Wife and the Husband. —Lisabetha is a cunning 
animal, clear-headed and self-reliant. She laughs at her maid's 
fears because she has always blinded her lord by her wiles so 
far. And this jH-epares us to expect her success at the critical 
moment. She says herself, 11. 27-29 : 

" Was wer ich fiir ein Biileiiii, 
VV'o ich nicht wei' liatiger siiin, 
Midi sohicken kiindt in alle stiick !" 

She does not deceive herself, however : on the maid's exit, she 
reflects that the latter's words are true. It is high time for 
her to stop, but fortune seems to favour her, and she resolves to 
take one more chance. She says of herself, 1. 54 : "Ich hinje 
ein venvegeri Weib." She is " verurgen "; with poor Leonetta, 
she shows herself to be twice the man he is, and does her best 
to keep his courage up. All this furnishes a motif for her 


brilliant ruse. We are led up to expect some triumph of her 
readiness and courage. As we should expect from such a 
woman, she is mistress of her feelings, showing herself ardent 
with her favourite and cold with the man she <lislikes. The 
catastrophe loses none of its strength in Sachs' hands. It would 
seem a mistake, perha|)s, that the whole plan should he horn, as 
it were, in an instant, and that she should express no fear or 
hesitancy. Boccaccio does indeed make her give expression to 
both ; but Sachs a.ssigns the irresolution to the maid, 1. 157 : 
*' Iferr Gott wie nollen tvir than T' and the sense of danger to 
Lamprecht, 1. 15(S f., (pioted above. While they have been 
talking, she has been thinking (juickly. When her device has 
partly succeeded and Lamprecht has escaped, she plays her part 
admirably. Sachs keeps us in suspense hmger than Boccaccio. 
He gives Lisabetha a whole speech, II. JSS-103, U) express her 
agitation without so nnich as hinting at the -^ause. Boccaccio 
puts it all together. To the Italian ver.sion Sachs' heroine adds 
such corr(^)lH)rative details as an explanation how the street door 
came to be opened, 11. lJJo-7, wliich the Italian baggage omitted, 
and a pathetic description of the fugitive's condition, 1. 200. The 
triumph of her hypoci-isy is when she ])retends not to know who 
the young man is, and, when her husband recognizes in him the 
son of an old friend, she says, 1. 2(S4 : " Villeicht hat d( meiu 
Hertz f/eandt." This is really a fine piece of tragic irony. 
When she is left alone, she breathes a sigh of relief, thanks her 
stars that she has gotten out of it and that her favorite is now 
her guest. She tlien goes to the kitchen to see aftei- supper. 
Sachs emphasizes her daring and readiness of device, rather than 
her lust. In strong contrast to his worthless wife is Landolph, 
the husband. In Boccaccio he is simply the cuckold ; but from 
the slight hint of nobleness in the Decameron, ^teinhw, p. 438, 

I. 15, " doch hahe keine sorye mere, ich sol dich on schaden 
heijm beleiten," Sachs constructs the whole character. We 
know him before he appears on the stage, for Lisabetha says 

II. 45-4cS : 

•' Es wer wol zeit, dasz ich lis/, ab, 
Weyl mil- das gliick ein Ehmann gab, 
Von (leni ieli liab Ehr viul audi gut, 
Der mir keins argen trawen thut. " 


He is not a jealous man, Imt stern enough. In warning her 
of the risk she runs, Agneta says of her master, 1. 15 : " Er 
isf gar ein ernstlichei' Mann." This character, even down to 
the name, is all Sachs' own. Though, in the Decameron, there is 
no hint of the husband's profession, Sachs has conceived him as 
an old soldier, brave, stern, upright. In 11. 271-275, he tells 
Leonetta that he was brother-in-arms to the hitter's father in 
the Venetian wars. He is brave, for he is ready to encounter 
the redoubtable Lamprecht himself for the sake of Leonetta. 
The prompt way he espouses the cowardly Leonetta's quarrel 
shows his sense of justice. This is shown in also his commen- 
dation of his Mafe's conduct, 1. 218, and his natural expression of 
regret that his house should be disgraced by a brawl, 1. 225, 

68. Improvement in Tone. — Sachs raises the power of 
the entire action, to borrow a term fi-om mathematics. 
Landolph is represented by him as escorting the lover personally, 
1. 2(5'?, and offering to defend him with hiss word, while in the 
Decameron it is merely said that he gave him safe-conduct. 
The speeches, 11. 271-280, 288-292, approach the pathetic. The 
wronged and trusting husband is ready to defend the life of the 
man who has dishonoured him, because his father and he were 
comrades ; more than that, he commends him to his wife's 
acquaintance. All the honour of this fine and well-worked out 
conception belongs to Sachs, who here shows that he understood 
the character of a high-minded gentleman. There is only the 
slightest suggestion of this in Boccaccio. The peculiar 
heightening of the action is noticeable in another respect. I'his is 
not a vulgar amour of peasants, but all the actors in it are of good 
rank. Landolph and Lamprecht are both set down as " Rittor " 
in the dramatis personoi, and, in the teeth of the declaration 
Steinh'w, p. 435, 1. 22, Leonetta is called the "Jung Edelmann " 
in the same j)lace ; cf. also 1. 279. This play cannot be called a 
farce. The theme is not treated in a vein of lightness ; the 
seriousness of tone is the more marked when compared with the 
merry note pervading No. 16 or No. 80. The vicious wife 
triumphs, her ruse succeeds, but she is not applauded as in the 
Italian tale. The impression left on the mind of the audience 


is that of the woman's utter uiiwoi-thiiioss standing,' out in sharp 
contrast to her hushand's nobleness. This contrast is enforced 
by the e})ilo<;fue with which tlie maid closes the phiy, and it is 
not too nnich to say that No. 4Ji n^presents an unconscious 
approach of ^^enius t<> the citi/en-coinedy, so-caUed, anticipating 
Lessing by two centuries. 


^ 69. Source of No. 45, Dec. VII. 5. — No. 45. Ih'i' (/rosz 
Eyferfn', der sein Welb Beicid hiiref, <hited January 14. 15G8. 
(}(ptze .says regarding- tlie .source, vol. 42/4li, xvii. : ''Auchdie 
Fahel zti dem Fasinachtspiele vom stark J<Jifernih'/di(/fiti hat 
//. Sachs dchb Decmneron entmmitnen ( VII. i). T The 
Schwank and Spruchgedicht mentioned also in the .same place 
have not been accessible. The story of the Decameron is as 
follows : 

§ 70. Synopsis of Dec. VII. 5. — A rich merchant of Rymel 
is in(n-dinately jealous of his pretty wife. She is so clo.sely 
kept that she finds no method of revenging herself, till she 
discovers that a chink in the wall opens into the room of a 
young- man who lives next door. She comes to an understanding 
with him. When Christmas comes, she wishes to go to church 
to confess and receive the .sacrament. She has a conversation 
on the subject with her husband, and arouses his suspicions by 
teasini^ him. Her husband goes to the chapel before her, and 
disguises himself in a monk's frock. She penetrates the 
disguise, and pretends to confess an adultery. She says a monk 
lies with her everv night. Her husband refuses her absolution, 

-I/O ' 

and that night, on the pretext of a visit, he watches in armour 
for his su[)p()sed dishonourer. The young man takes advantage of 
this absence to visit the wife. In the morning the husband sends 
a messenger as if from the confessor, to ask if the monk has been 
with her. She replies, No. He is in great perplexity, and 
repeats liis vigils many nights, to the satisfaction of the lovers. 
At last her husband demands an explanation. She tells him 
that she had seen through his disguise in the chapel ; that he 
himself was the monk. He is cured of his jealousy, and guards 

^^i^aJnUt^tB^JSV. ! 


her less closely, thus eiifihlin^' her iu mvry on her intri^ruc with 
ease hi id safety. 

§ 71. Aunlysls of No. 45.— The introduction to the play 
consists in a dialo^fue hctween tlu; wife and her Ahi^^ail. 'i'he 
wife complains of the unjust susj)ieions under which slie lies, 
and tlie maid teni])ts her in vain to <five her hnsluuid cause for 
jealousy, l»y taking' a lover. Then follows n soliiocjuy ])y the 
husband, showing- how jealous he is ; after which, the wife enters 
and tells him .she wi.shes to confess, and ^ets permission to do 
so. Wlu^n she has retired, the jealous man declares his ])urpose 
of di.srfuisin^niimscilf as a monk to hear her confession. A sliort 
scene follows between tlu! wifc^ and her maid, who acts here as 
well as I. 244 fl! as her embodied sus|)icions. By .some .soi-t of 
clairvoyance, the wife ^messes lier husband's plan. The scene in 
the confessional follows; much as in the I)ecamei-on. However, 
the wife in Sachs fails to ^^ot absolution, a nnieh more natui'al 
turn than in Boccaccio. An outl)urst of an^-er follows fi-om the 
husband. In tlie next scene, when tlie maid and wife fire 
con^ratiilating themselves on the success of their ruse, the 
husband enters an<l dechires his intention of f^'oiu^' on a visit. 
A pretty touch of Sachs' own is 1. 187 tt! : 

" Die Flaw .spiiclit 

Wie ? wilt (111 lieitit iiiclit hinnen ligen ? 
ISo werd icli zu totlt foitliten niir. 

I)er Kyfrer spriciit, 

' Ey .so leg die Vrschel zu dir."" 

Wiien he ^oes out, tlie maid and wife acfree to watch him 
and find out what all tliis means. Tlie liusband returns in 
armour, and in a soliloquy declares his intention of w.-itchin;;- for 
the supposed adultei-er. The action is rapid here. The folloAving 
scene discloses the fact that the wife and maid have discovered 
his plan. They ^o off to bed. An interval of one night elapses, 
and then the " Eyferer " appears and complains of the hardshij)s 
he has gone through. The husband's messenger apjiears in tlie 
next scene, and is told that the monk did not conu; that night. 
The poor dupe of a husband gives way to his rage. The maid 


a^'jiiii toinpts the wife, luid is severely rebuked by hor. The 
husli)in<l l»reaks in und insists on an oxj)hination. Sachs, 
althou^^h ho condonses this part, is <|uite as ^ood as Boccaccio. 
Th«5 wife first t'tsiirns i^Mioranee, then says [)erhai)s tlie confessor 
has hhibhed, and then nnikiceives him ; t\n) phiy cl«)ses with tlie 
Imshand's aj)()Io^y for his unjust suspicions. 

^ 72. ('Iiaiiifcs in No. 45. - -A^^ain Sachs has chanf^ed the 
conijilexion of the j)iece, while retainin<i; almost every incident 
of the original (§ ()4). There is only one important omission 
besides the necessary condensation in the scene wiiere the wife 
gets he)' husband's permission to attend church, tlie confessional 
scene and the scene at the end in which she explains the double 
meanin<jf of her confession. TJiis omission is the entire intrigue 
with the young man next door; a similar omission occurs in 
No. 42 (§ 5G). In the J)ecameron the trick is a means to an 
end. Sachs has made it a thing complete in itself, and so 
clianged the j'cjudsive story into an innocent ])ractical joke ; an 
att'ectionat(! wife's cure for a jealous husband. Mai'garetha is 
perfectly faithful throughout. 

S 73. Additions. — The oidv additional material is reminis- 
cent of this intrigue. Twice in the piay tbe maid tempts her 
mistress. Fii-st, in the introduction, she urges her to revenge 
herself, 11. 20 25, nnd points out the ways and means, 11. 80-33, 
especially 1. 32 : " I)(t (jeld ein J/i)>;/[l ng eiii vnd avs ;" this is 
the PiiilipjH) of the Decameron. He does not occur as a chaivacter 
in the FastnachtKi)iel. 'J'he reference to Boccaccio is closer, 
11. Sli-^l, but though the wife might seem to yield at first by 
eiKjuiring almost wistfully, she am[)ly atones for it by the stern 
rebuke, 11. 41-52, which she administcsrs. Again, 1. 27G K when 
they are rid of the husband's presence, the maid urges her again, 
and the chaste wife 'igain asserts herself. The idea is entirely 
Sachs', and tnidently put in for a moral purpose. 

I 74. Correspondences. — The tone throughout is refined, and 
the interest centres in tlie character of Margaretha, who is 
depicted as a faithful wife with plenty of spii-it, yet thoroughly 
amiable withal. There is absolutely nothing in the stage 


directionH to cull for remark ; the vorhnl oorroHpon.lnnces are 
given below : 

Stfiiihiv. p. 4.10, I. 10. ^Vrt. 4,;, I. 74 f 

fmwo was Hiind hast du J)cgaugon da/, Was sUnden hast, du jotzt'auir dir, 

du dioh wilt noichton. .ri..: .1.1 .; 1 i •\^ xvn 

^ ■'"""• '-'»>'8''imgloiLlil)eicli(tuiwutaufl Morgen? 

'''■ '■ ^^" Ok I. 7? iT 

meitiHt du das ioli heilig noy danunl) Moinst, .lasz ' ich im HauHZ stets 

das du mioli voraport hetest- \AG\h 

loll dorhallKii koiij Hilnde f rcih 

Mit wort, wurk viid f,'odaiiek('M inein ? 

»''• '• ^^' ih. I. SI f. 

Doch in koin andur kirclion gingo dann Undi solt keim audiM-n hoid.ten gar 

alleine in ire capellen vud ironi oapellan Denn vnsenn Cajjlan hindei in Al'ar. 

/'• 411, 1- to. ih. I. 121, 

Vnd do pey wie sy cin pfatFe licb lictt. Ja, vnd hal. audi lid. oinon Pfairon. 

ih. l. JO, i,^ , j„^ 

vnd alle nacht mit if schlarten kcm. Ja, cr sohlofFt all nadit mir. 

ih. L 10. 
leyt nidit eiier ee mann pey 1 ddi. 

ih. I. n/,. 
Ligt denn dein Mann nitselbst bey diri 

fV;. l. IS. ii,_ /. /.-'iy; 

Idi weisz nidit mit was kuuHt cr das Dassdb kann ich niclit sinnen ausz, 
thut, Es ist koin turc so wol nitt verspert Kr kann auflsperren alle ( Jemaoh : 
wenn er daikomet da/, cr die nit auf 


§ 75. Source of No. 46.— No. 4G. D<w Weih Im Bnuinen, 
dated Jan. 5tli, 1553. Gretze says, vol. 42/43, xviii. : " l)((.s 46, 
Fasfmwhfspiel h((f. SucJih vach dcm 4. Hliiche der VII. Taytrise 
des Decameron ijedichfef." The inastersong on the same sul.ject 
has not been accessible. The plot of Dec. \ll. 4, is the 

§ 76. Synopsis of Dec. VII. 4 — A husband, Toffano by name, 
is jealous of his pretty young wife, Oitta. She takes a lover, 
and, by encouraging her husband's tendency to excess in drirdcing, 
finds opportunity for carrying on the intrigue. The husband 
becomes suspicious; one night he feigns drunkoiniess, and as 
soon as his wife has left the house, he bolts the door. At 







midnight she returns ; he refuses to admit her ; she says, she 
will drown herself to hide lier disgrace, and, by throwing a large 
stone into the well, makes him believe that she really has done 
so. He goes out to rescue her, ami she slips into the liouse, and 
locks him out. She iunnediate'y raises an outcry, and feigns 
that lie is drunk. This brings the neighbors out of their beds. 
She so completely turns the tables upon him, that the neigidxuu's 
take hei- part, and in spite of his remonstrances, a (piasi-legal 
separation is effected on the spot. He obtains a reconciliation 
with her afterwar<ls, through the offices of friends. 

§ 77. Analysis of No. 46. —The play proceeds as follows. 
The first scene opens on tin; evening of the main incident, the 
mutual bari-ing-out. SteHano, the husband, expresses his 
suspicions of his wife's virtue, and resolves to feign drunkenness, 
in order to detect her. Gitta enters, and is told that he intends 
to visit his brother. Her speech upon his exit represents here, 
as elscAvhere, the lapse of time, (§ ()'i). Tin; wife reveals her 
character, and shows that her husband's suspicions are more 
than justified. At the end of it, the husbniid returns, apparently 
hopelessly druidc. She leads Iiim oft" t(^ bed, returns and fui'ther 
reveals her charactci" in a monologue. On her exit, the husband 
appears aurl bolts the dooiv Again the single speech represents 
the lapse of time (§ ())i). The Avife comes and tries the door 
first with her keys, and then, 1. 103, with her knife. She 
knocks, 1. 105, an<l he re])lies in justifial)le anger, and a lively 
dialogue follows, at the end of which, 1. KK), she pi'etends to 
di-own herself. The ruse succeeds ; the husband runs out, and 
the wife rushes in, and locks the door. The ensuing dialogue is 
very bright, as showing the changes iu the man's emotions. 
Fin.dly, her outcry brings her lu'other Anthoni upon the scene. 
She accuses Steffano of drunkenness, and, though the luckless 
husband gives the true state of the case, Anthoni does not 
believe him. At last, he l)eats iiim for abusing his wife. 
Steffano does not show fight, and Gitta goes off trium))haiitly, 
under her brother's pi'ofection. The husband speaks the 
epilogue, and the prospect of a lawsuit in t!ie morning makes 
him resolve to try and conciliate her, because she always gets 
the better of li".m. 





§ 78. Variations from tlie Deeameroii. — Tliere is no incident 
omitted, though the intrigue with the young man is not made so 
prominent in Sachs as in the Decameron. In regard to the 
additions, it is needless to say, the introduction is of Sachs' own 
invention ; cf. § (Jo. The man gives some of the facts of the 
Boccaccian narrative in the form of a soliloquy. There is no 
dialogue in tlie Decameron corresjxHiding to the one wliich 
ensues in the Fa.stnachtspiel in which the husband goes out, 
11. 25-30, for the purpose of getting drunk. In fact, the same 
may he said of the whole play down to 1. 117. The situations 
are supplied l)y Boccaccio, hut the dialogue is all hy Sachs. The 
comic speeches, 11. 11«-18!), are not in the Decameron. The 
honour of the fine passage, 11. 177-105, showing the alternations 
of anxiety, compassion and wonder on the husband's part when he 
thinks his wife is di'owned, belongs also to Sachs. The brother. 
Anthoni, does not appear in the original. True to his custom, 
Sachs represents the vague multitude hy a single character (§ 88); 
Steffano's .speeches in the last scene are Sachs' (nvn, tor in the 
Decameron he is not allowed to sav anythinjjf ; that is all done 
by Gitta. The epilogue is also all by Sachs. 

§ 79. Unity, Sta^e-dircctions. — This ])lay is remarkable in 
many ways. Not the least surpi'ising thing is the 
adherence, perhaps unconscious, to the doctrines of the unities. 
The time represented is at most three or four hours, and the 
action does not halt for a moment. This is the shortest period 
repi-esented in the Boccaccian plays. The place is tlie house and 
space in front, and it would almost seem from the stage- 
directions that there must hav(^ l)een a house i-epresented on the 
stage, for it seems plain, 1. f)l If. and f)8, stage-direction, that both 
husband and wife are seen by the audience when one is within 
and the other without the house, "^riie greater luimber of the 
stage-directions occur naturally in connection with the trick 
which the wife plays, 1. 08: " Die fmw kiirii)>f, spcrrf tinder 
fhiir III it den SchlusHcl n." It would seem that there were other 
actions, see 1. 102 f., and 1. 105 : 1. 100, " ^leld(q)fft einnud oder 
dreij." It would seem, also, from 1. HH, '■ Sic. vnrjf't den Stein 
in Hranncn," and 1. 177, '^ Dcr n}t(nn sclnrf/f noh in hnnmen," 


as if the well was represented on the stage, or at least, that 
Sachs intended it to be so represented. 

§ 80. The Drunken Scene. — No. 46 also is one of the earliest 
plays to introduce a dnniken man upon the stage ; 1. 51, 
" Sfefavo (lorcMt her." He shows it in his gait and by the 
passive way in which he allows his wife to lead him oft! 1. 61, 
" Sie fiiii jn ah, (Cr." He shows his intoxication hy the 
repetition of words and the fragmentary structure of his 
sentences. The following is as go(jd an example as any, 1. 53 f., 

" Vier nuisz, vicr inasz Reinfal truncken, 
An Wendell, Wenileii heinilier liuncken." 

Before he enters, his wife leads the audience to expect that 
he is drunk ; 1. 49 f. she says : 

" T)oit (lorckdl er glo.ioli eben her 
Mich (lunckt zwar, er sey nicht vast ler. " 

For similar instances of making an entrance gradual, cf. 11. 
24, 91 ; for similar devices of preparation, § 00. The passage 
11. 169-176 is plainly an aside (cf. § 26), for it is plain, from the 
husband's next speech, that he has not heard her, while the 
audience has. 

§ 81. General Crfticisni. — The play is not a broad farce, like 
No. 16, nor a serious play, like No. 43, but a ])it of light comedy. 
The interest is an intellectual one, partly ; for the wife, according 
to Steftano's own confession, 1. 3i4, is the (]uick-wittcd (me, and 
the ruse is decidedly clever. It is eftective, not only in the matter 
of deceiving the husband, but in making the brother believe the 
wife's tale, when the facts are all on the side of Steft*ano. Sachs 
was also atcract«^d by the pictiu'e of domestic difficulties which 
it affords, cf. § 34. Another feature is the contrasted scenes for 
which Sachs has shown his fondness before, cf. No. 23. iiS 24, 27. 

^82. Character-drawinpr, GItta, St«ffano, Anthoni. — Oitta is 
keen and unscrupulous, ready with excuses, and siiarp of tongue. 
The lines 290 ff'., where she incites her brother to beat her 
husband, are capital ; she tells Anthoni that her husband has 
often despised him. But Steffano is the real protagonist of the 


piece. It is really wonderful how, within the small compass of 
330 lines, he is represented first as a jealous husband laying a 
plot, then feigning drunkenness, then exulting in the success of 
his stratagem. Thereu{)on follows a burst of justifiable anger, 
of irony, and a tirade of abusive language. As soon as his wife 
seems to have drowned herself, a change comes. He feels pity 
at once, which rapidly becomes anxiety and remorse. The 
natural revulsion to relief and friendliness follows when he finds 
that she is still alive, and like a sensible f(!llow, he asks to be let 
back into bed. When she tries to impose on him further, he 
fires up again, and, when he finds that the truth does not prevail, 
and that he is not believed, he sulmiits to the bufietings of 
Anth(mi like a slieep. For a similar depicting of changes in 
feeling, ef. § 12. Finally, in the epilogue, he resolves to try and 
get his wife back to cover his disgrace. Anthoni is the 
swaggering big brother, l»ut his first remark is good, 1. 219 : 
" Lefit euch zii rim) ! last die Lewi schlnfen." The correspondences 
in dialogue are not close, and are therefore omitted. 


§ 83. Source of No. 53. — No. 53. Der Ketzermeister mif den 
vil kessel siippen, dated Octoljer 2, 1553. Goetze gives the 
source in his introduction No. 51/52, viii. : " Dieseehste Geschichte 
des ersten tnges in Johannes Boccaccios Decamerone (Keller 
s. J^l f.) ist fiir das Fast nachf spiel ; Der Ketzermeister mit den 
vielen Kesseln Snppe — die Qiielle f/eAcesen." The mastersong, 
with the same contents, is to be found in Gcedeke I. IGO. It 
may be noticed that Sachs casts his material into the form of a 
schwank or mastersong before making it into a play, and in 
several cases, noticeably in No. 84, he seems to have had the first 
working over of the novel before his eyes, rather than the novel 
itself. His lyrical period is as good as closed before his dramatic 
period opens. 

§ 84. Synopsis of Dec. I. «. — We will ct)nsider first the 
original novel. Tlie story runs as follows : — a simple rich 
fellow in Florence i-emarkcd one day that he had such good 
wine that God himself mi<rht like to drink it. These words 


were carried to the IiKjuisitor, who disciplined him for his 
blasphemy, and, after threatening him with death, allowed him 
to compromise the matter by giving a yellow banner to the order ; 
he is made to pay handsomely besides ; and, on his release, is 
re(iuired to attend mass at th.e convent chapel, every day, for a 
specified time. On one occasion, he hears that men shall receive a 
hundred-fold in heaven for all their ^rood deeds on earth. This 
per[)le;res him, for the convent ^ives alms of soup daily to the poor, 
and if the monks ai'e to receive a hundred bowls for one, they will 
assuredly l)e drowned. He says this to the Tn(|uisitoi', to the 
hitter's discomfiture, and is allowed to ^o free. In the master- 
soni^, no division is made hctweeu tin; two parts. The only other 
variations are those which necessarily arise from the more 
compact form of the lyric. Tin; Nabal of the case is not allowed 
to go free and then brought back. In this respect alone has the 
mastersong influenced the Fastnachtspiel. 

§ 85. Condciisatiou for the Sake of Uuity« — It will be seen at 
once that, if a }>lay is to l)*^ constructed from this material, it 
must consist of dialogue rather than of action. The point lies 
in a single repartee Avhich gains the victory for honest ignorance 
over fraud. Action is excluded. Indeed, there is only one stage- 
direction which is not colourless, vi;^., 1. 400 : " Der Inquislior 
spricht zornig," The only omission is that noticed above, § 84. 
At first glance tliis may seem slight and unimportant, but it is in 
reality not so. The loosely-t(»]d story is divided into two parts. 
Steinhw. p. 42, 1. 82 f.: p. 48, 1. 8. The witticism on which the 
tale pivots is only an afte'-thought in the Decameron. This 
circumstance may make the tale apjiear more natural, but a 
drama re(|ui]-es unity, and Sachs has made the first careless 
speech the cause of the final denofiment. 

§ 86. AnalysiB of Introanctioii. — As .stated above, Sachs' 
tendency to amplify the given ])lot in a natural manner, is 
shown here in a marked degree. Steinhw. ]x 42, 1. 8, " Snliche 
red vnd wortj' i. e., that the wine would rejoice the heart of 
God, " derii jxirfasistcr inunrh inquisitore zv f/ehiitr kamen." 
From this hint, Sachs constructs his inti'oduction. The informer, 
Hermann Pich, comes on, looking for his prey; he sees Simon the 


Host, and accosts him, 11. 1-14 : the fatal speech is made, 11. 20-24. 
The subsequent scene between Pich and the Iiiqnisitor, 11. 45-145, 
who are represented as spy and spy-master, is entirely supplied 
from the statement in Steinhowel, (juoted above. Again, it is 
necessary that there be some one to whom Simon can express 
his terror, and so Nachl)ar Clas is created. He comes on 1. 117, 
with Simon, just after the In(|uisitor has told the spy that he 
will send his proctors to the host, 1. 1 18. In the short interval, 
this threat has been carried into execution; Simon enters in 
terror, 1. 117, exclaiming-, " /s'y, eij, eij, cij (teh, dch, rnd w,-h .'": Chis 
enquires the cause of liis distress, and tries to con.sole lum. The 
passage 11. 117-1 09 is entirely Sachs' own: the sliglitest possible 
hint for the existence of such a friend is to be found Sfrivlnr. 
p. 42, 1. 1 : " eines fiu/cfi ivlder cJlirhe seive (jesellen (fesprochev 
hef, wie er als einen gufen weiit, (Cv." The ensuing scene 
between Dr. Romanus, the Inquisitor, and the Custor,ll. l()r)-208, 
is also made out of whole clotli. 'Y\\q Custor is not mentioned 
in the original. 

§ 87. Correspondences. — In the scene between the IiKpiisitor 
and Simon, 1. 209-227, the following correspondences occur : — 

Steinhu; p. 43, I. 11 ff. No. 53, I. :?I7 f. 

particularly 1. 15. — "so machest dii Vnd auch sant Johannes, der Tauffer ? 
vns vnsern herren Kristum zu eineni Wilt aus in machen zwen WeinsautTer, 
trincker, ala wer er Ciciglione oder Das sie von dcni Woyn warden wol 
eiiers geleichen. Zwen tniiickcn boltz vnd .scin stiidtvol, 

Wie (111 vnd deins geleichen hist? 

lb. I. 21. ih. I. ass f. 

Du hast das fewer vnd den tode als ein Darniit hast du verdient das fewer, 
poser keczer verschult. Wie ein Ketzei- gar vngchewr. 

Simon's speech, 11. 230-287, is an expansion op SfriiTfnr, 
p. 42, 1. 12 f. : tvaz der f/ut man geredf Jni don inquisifore 
saget vnd irn des sein vieiiui/ng zu versten g(d)r." The 
interference of Clas at this juncture, 1. 288, an<l the hi<licrous 
scene up to his expulsion, 1. 278, is pure invention on the part of 
Sachs, and has no place in the source. Penance is laid on 
Simon ; he must stay in the cloister, 1. 297, go to preaching, 
1. 306, and repeat a part of what he hears to the Inquisitor 
afterwards, 1. 307 f. Again, the scene with Clas, 11. 813-844. 




where he asks Siinori how he fares at the convent, and advises 
him to purchase his pardon with money, is not in the original. 
Indeed, tlie oidy dialogue wliich may l)e said to be made ready 
to liis hand, besides the ])assafres collated above, is that contained 
in the final scene, where the famous i-eply is made. The following 
are the corresf)ondences which occur there : — 

SfPiiifiir, p. 4.1, I. 9. Xo. r,,1, I. 361 /. 

Der iniincli in ftaget ol) er des solbeii l)u Ketzer, hist zu Prcdig gwesseu ? 
morgeii mess gehort liet; Was li.%st horn singen oder Lesen? 

i''- I- IJ- ih. I. 366 f. 

<>b ei- ill der epistel vnnd eiiangeli Wasjsz ? hast du eiu zweyffel drin? 

der iiiesse ioht vernonimen het dar an Sag iier ! ich wil dich vnterrichten. 
er czweyfelt. 

'■''■ '• ^'h ih. I. S63 ff. 

Es ist wol ware icli vernai.i etliclie Heyliger Vatter, an dem ort 

wort, die mich vmb oUer vnd eiier Hab ich gehort ein echrocklich wort, 

priider widen grosses leyte haben Das selb bekiinimert mir main sinn. 
tragen machen. 

«■/'• I- l^- 'h. I. 36S f. 

Ich gelaiibe ot; alien czweyfel alles daa, Mein Herr ich zweiffel gar mit nichten. 
das ich liab in fier messe gehort ban ; Fiir micli selb es gar nit blagt. 

'■''• /• 16. ih. I. 370. 

wie dem ? welche wort sein das, So sag iier ! was hat er gesagt ? 

die dich vmb vnsern willen also betriibt 

/. 378 ff. 
Fiir mich kummert es mich nit sehr, 
Sonder ich erschrick an dem endt 
Fiir euch vnd ewer gantz Conuendt. 

Der Incjuisitor spricht 

W arumb fiir una ? das selbig sag ! 

»^- l- JS- ih. I. 371 ff. 

Ich vernam in dem heiligen eiiangeli Man hat predigt, was wir hie geben, 

wort die also sprachen ; Jr wert fiir Das wirt vns dort in jenem Leben 

einen den ir gebt liundert wider haben. Alles wol hnnderfeltig finden. 

das ist ware du hast recht gehort vnd Das ist war, gwisz ohn vbcrwinden. 

wol vernomen? Aber sage mir waz Dninib gieb auch viel ins Closter rein T 

vrsach haben dich dise wort in solche So nembstus liundertfeltig ein, 

gedencken geseozet. Was erschrickst denn ob dieser lehr ? 



Stt'inhir. p. 4J, I. 23. 
byder ich hie mit euch gewonet hab ich 
alle tage vor eiier porten des klosters 
vil arines volkes fundenn haii Do pcy 
alwcg ezwen odr drey grosse kessel mit 
Buppen vnd priie, die man eiicli nyint 
vnd duroh got den arinen geyt, 

ib. I. S6 ff. 
Siilt ir mm in gener welt alweg fur 
einon kessel mit suppen lumdurt wider 
habenn, Ir wert so vil priie vnd suppen 
haben daz ir on zweifel dar inn 
ertrincken miist. 

ib. I. 37 ff. 
czorniglich zu im sprach daz er an den 
galgen ginge tliette was er wiilt niir 
nicht mer zu im kerne. 

No. r,fi, I. .IS:^ ff. 
Da hab it-h gsehen alle tag 
Das jr hicnausiz tragt ausz erb.irnien 
Drey kessel mit suppen den ariiien. 

ib. I. .?,S\S' ff. 
Dafiir wirt euch in jener Wvh 
Wol liiindert tiuipendt kes^cl vol, 
Neun taiisendt vnd fiinfT hundert wol. 
Wo Avolt jr mit den suppen alln hin ? 
Jell fiircht WiirJich, jr werdt darinn 
Si!ml)t ilcm gantzen Conuendt ertrinck' 

In der suppen zu grunde sineken, 

ib. I. 40.5 ff. 
Heb dieh fliix au.^z dem Closter nausz, 
An galgen heim bin in dein Hausz ! 
Kumb mir nit mehr fiir mein angsicht ! 

§ 88. Comparison of Boccaccio's and Saclis' Dialogue. — Before 
discussing tlie relation of the various jjarts to one another, let us 
consider the parallel ];assages cited above. It may be said in 
genera], tliat Sachs rarely improves on the Boccaccian dialogue 
where it is supplied ready-made, i. e., where the narration is 
direct ; but in the indirect narration, he often excels liis original 
in energy; for instance, 1. 363 is stronger than the mere 
statement in prose. For a similar reason, I. 366 is superior to 
the passage opposite ; a point-blank (piestion must be livelier 
than saying that such a (piestion was asked. It will be noticed 
how Sachs has transposed 11. 363-5, and repeated the idea of 
1. 369, namely, that Simon is not anxious for himself, in order to 
hei£rhten the interest and make the climax stronger. The 
ascent to the application of the " hundred-fold " is more 
gradually prepared. Simon has heard " chi whrocJdick wort" 
1. 364, but is not troulded about liimself, 1. 369, and thus he tells 
wluit he has heard, 11. 37 1 3. 1'he aj)plication of the text by the 
Inquisitor to money paid to the convent intervenes, 1. 375, and, 
on being again iiuestioned, Simon says he is afraid for the 
convent. The retort follows, with several additions of Sachs' 
Simon ijoes into statistics which are ti-uly alarming, 



Is :1 


I. 8tS7, and I. 389 t'.: carrying tlu; \iUni .still i'urthei-, he wonders 
how the\' cfiii swiin in the tlowiiif; t'l-ocks in which tliey are 
buried. The final citation, 1. 405 fK, sni-passeH the parallel 
passage also, inasnuich as it is direct narration. 

§80. Sachs' Aiiipllflcnt Ions. -It is not difficult to ju.stify the 
introduction of the additional scenes. The anecdote nuist have 
a IVaniework, .so each pai't of tlie orii^'inal tale is naturally 
anijilihed and expanded. Simon's heretical speech nnist I'cach 
the (uii's f)f the ]n(|uisitoi-, hy what inoi-e natural chaiuiel than 
the s])y / In the hrst scene, thcrefoif, tin- speech is made to the 
int'ormej- ; in the next, he lays his information hefore his 
master, II. S8 05, and it is noticeable how he has exaggerated. 
Simon had said, 11. 20-24: 

" Vik! wenii jii trinckni solt iilleiii 
(Jott villi iiiKjli .Idhannoi dor 'i'uiill'tir, 
Welchcr gowest ist scin vorliuiffoi', 
So \vey.</ icli yc, dcr Woyii wer gut 
Villi wiirt orfrowoii jiii den iniilit." 

Fich does not allow this to lose cinvthini'- in the tellinsr 

II. 90-95: 

" Sfigt, wic ein giiten W'eyii hot or, 
Der wer so gut, vnd gleycli zu spot, 
Wenii jii S.iiit .Toliaiis vnd solli (Jott 
I)es selhen soltoii ein vicrtl triiicken, 
iSie miisten vntor don 'I'iscli bincken 
Vnd tnuickeii wurden wie die Scliweyn." 

Sachs is true to life in making tliis trait of the talebearer 
prominent. The hrst scene with Clas, 11. l]7-l(uS, shows the 
effect of the Incpiisitor's niandate upon poor Simon ; Sachs 
prefers this to a scene in which the proctor would speak to 
Simon directly; the second, 11. 23<S 278, is an interlude and a 
concession to a mirth-loving and Protestant audience ; the 
Romish lion is l)earded in his den, 11. 2G2-4: 268 f.,and the puns, 
1. 249 f., 1. 255 fi!, no doubt ])roduced roars of laughter (§ 40). The 
third scene with Clas, 11. 318-844, is necessary to show that the 
penance has been performed which was laid on, 11. 297-806. 
This scene pre])ares us for what is to follow : II. 388-5 lead up 
to the final .scene, where Simon recites what he has heard. We 
had been prepared foi" the service, 11. 169, when the Cu.stor was 



given instructions to light the ta|)ers for tho service : see also 
11. 206-8. Here, too, we have the basins of soup tneiitioned, 
11. 17()-iH2. The Custor's re[)ly tends to amplify the matter; 
at the same time both he and the Inquisitor exhibit their 
hypocritical characters. This is done in the conventional way 
by the villains boldly <leclaring that they are villains. The 
seccmd scene with the Custor, 1. 1^45 (1., is introduced evidently to 
carry on the story and call attention to the situation, viz., Simon 
is being persecuted \)y the mordcs, and sees that he can buy 
himself oti". The idea is Boccaccio's; indeed, he emphasizes the 
greed of the IiKpiisitor, but the device is Sachs' own. 

§ 90. The Spy, Inquisitor, Simon, IVelglibour Clas. -^Thc 
characters are stnmgly defined. Pich is the tyincal spy, a mean, 
ungrateful wretch; he has drunk in Simon's tavern, 1. U. 
accepts his wholo-souled invitation, 1. 2<S, and then vilifies him, 
Sachs rein-esents him as fawning upon his master; see stage- 
direction 1. 82. The Incjuisitor is the cruel, rapacious, hypoci-itical 
villain, whose final discouifiture would be sure to draw applause 
from Protestant NurenduTg audiences. He exhibits his character 
in his first soliloquy, 1. 45 fi"., in whieii lie shows more greed than 
cruelty; 11. 171-3 show his hypocrisy. His Inillying of Simon 
and his threatenings, 1. 214 fi'., 11. :i()l 2, are sufliciently rough. 
But there is not as much inysterions terror surrounding him as 
we are accustomed to as.sociate with the name. In the victim 
Simon, Sachs has improved considerably on the original. There 
he is merely called "ein <dfer erher mtm — Mer rekhe cm fielte 
dann an sinnen." Sfcivhw. p. 41, 1. 34. Sachs makes him 
Simon Wirt, and such passages as 11. 11,17, 100 f. leave no d()ul)t 
as to his vocation. In Boccaccio there is no hint of this, but it 
is particularly ap])ropriate that the remark about the wine 
should be put into the mouth of a publican, and, in representing 
him as rich, Sachs is in strict accord with the traditional 
opinion regarding inn-keepers in the Middle Ages. Simon is 
very simnle, and he knows that he is a fool; 1. 155 : " M bin 
clem Miinch gar zii einfdtlg." The remainder of this shows 
his dependence on others, and emphasizes his iml)ecility. It 
is this weakness which makes it possible for the Incjuisitor to 
terrify liim into denying his friend, 11. 284-7. Neighbour Clas 



is much tlie clojiror-lieatlod of the two, and in contrnsi to Sinion, 
who crin«ros, he ahuso.s the ln(|uisitor i-oundly to his face, 
11. 2(5 .-27S. The (stron^r Protestant tone is to be noticed, 
esi)eciaily in the epilo;?ue spoken by the hKiuisitor. The 
complaint ai,minst the layman, 1. 417-25, is the one so often made 
by the cler^'y of th(> time. 


§ 91. Discovery of Source of No. 62, Dec. IX. 5. — No. (32. In 

the register " Der tvol, erzaiist alt pacler," dated Feb. 1st, 1554. 
It ap])ears that the material has been worked up by Sachs 
into two mastcrsongs (MG. X. B. and XV. 22'-23'). These, how- 
ever, not being accessible, I am obliged to give the statement on 
the authority of Go^tze. As is well-known, the bulk of the master- 
songs is still unedited. The variations of the play from the 
original novel a'e triiling, and can readily be explained otherwise 
than by assuming that they are due to the influence of the msister- 
souirs. Neither (Jeetze nor Keller i>ive any hint of the source. It 
is however, taken from Decameron IX. day, 5th novel, Stcinliw. 
pp. 5()l-5()8. As I liave to establish this, I shall vary the usual 
order by giving a synoj)sis of tlie Fastnachtsjiiel first. 

§ 92. Analf.sis of No. 62.— The course of events, scene V)y 
scene, is as follows. Enter two peasants, Ulla Lapp and Eberlein 
Dildapp, conversing. ])ildap]> is in love. In a drinking-bout, 
the night before, at the inn-keejier's, he saw the lattei-'s wife 
washing her feet. Her p(U"sonal charms, which are described in 
detail, have so influenced him that he Inu'iis like a " tr'uss of 
straw." He implores his friend Lap]), who is at the same time 
her gossip, for his aid, which tie latter ])romises. Dildapp, left 
alone, reflects that her love for him had l)egun long l)efore, and 
recalls certain manifestations of it. As he leaves the stage, 
Lap]) comes on witli Hildegart, the object of his passion ; Lapp 
tells of his friend's love, but the hostess rejects his overtures 
with scornful disgust. The go-between then changes his tone, 
and the two ref-.olve to play Dildapp a trick, upon which 
Hildegart goes home. Dildapp returns to hear the result of his 
proposal : his friend informs him that the lady is violently in 


lovo with him, iiiid rociuireH the honour of a Hercna<K'. Ho is v«!ry 
willing' to ^'ratify her, and besides, promises generously to ^'ive 
her whatever she (Uisires, " Viid Hnlt cs seiv (frci/ vrewzer 
wert." As he leaves, La[)|) solilo(|uis('s on his t'ri((nd's ^^reat 
stn()i(lity Accoi'din<( to Sachs' custom, this speech of the sin^de 
actor represents the lapse of time, ^ 77 ; when the hostess 
re-appears at the imd of it, a ni<^dit has passed, and Dihhipj) has 
given his sei'enade. Hildegart ^dv(>s a w.vy humorous account 
of the performance. Dildupp's !-(!tnrn interruj)ts the conversation, 
and the hostess leaves. Dildapj) ^dves his versicju of tin; 
serenade. He comj)laiMs of jiis ill success, and his friend the use of magic and enchantn)ents. They leave the 
stage to prepare the charm, and FJildi'gart n^turns to her 
interview with gossip Laj)]). He enters, and tells her of 
Dildapp's intention to use the charm upon her They plan to 
bring I)il(la|)p's wife to the assignation at the critical moment, 
andtluiu they can observe the sport from their coign of vantage, 
In this speech occurs one of those subjective touches which show 
Sachs, the conscious ai-tist. Wlien Lapj) has arranged the plot, 
he says, II. 2G4 -0 : 

" So wollen ioh vjid ewer iiiiin 
Oben iuich durcli eiii locli zii ai-hcn 
Wie (lis J'uatiuicht spil irirl iji-.'irlii'/iP.n." 

The hostess readily agrees to do her part, and exit. Angncs, 
Dilchipp's wife, comes on, asking for hei' husband, and com])laining 
to Lapp that .she cannot keej) the goodman in-doors at night. 
All hisspart! time he is pi'actisingcni his iiddle. Lapp tells of her 
Inisband's infidelity, and promises to give her an o[)portnnity to 
satisfy he! self on the subject. She is fiercely eager to go, l>ut 
Lapp induces lier to leave her knife at home. Then follows the 
final scene. Hildegart appears disguised, so that Angncs may 
not recognize hor. Dildaj)^^ touches her w ith the magic letter 
by using the delicate stratagem of protending to catch a flea on 
her neck. The charm seems to work, for the hostess runs after 
him, and he tries to embrace her. Hei'c Sachs', as is his custom, 
has modified considerably the original ])i(iUMiu'y of the situation 
in Boccaccio. Angnes rushes in, Hildegart runs off, and leaves 
Dildapj) to his rightful spouse, who beats him without mercy, 


till liiipp ri'sciiL's him from Imr clutclios, Tlu; huslnind Uo^h for 
panloii, l)ut h!k! attacks liim afjaiii : La))]) a^jain interforos, and 
slu' turns on liim ; t\uty indul^^o in mutual rcrriminations, till she 
chases him otl* tlie staf^c. Dililapp sodts rctlt'cts on tho eriMlihility 
of witchcraft ami the unfortunate interposition of his wife; he 
resolves to try and conciliate his " <ilt svliiflinff ;/aur' when he 
• •■oes home, that no worse misfortune overtake him. 

^ 0». 8yuopsii( of No. 62. -The plot of the novel is briefly 
this: — A i^^'utleman's mistress is seen hy ('alandrin, a workman 
in his house, when sIk^ comes down in her ni^^htdress to wash 
her hands and face at the well. lie tells his fellow-workmen 
that he has fallen in love with her. and they lay a ])lot with the 
gentleman and his mistress to have their. sport with thesim})leton. 
He fetches his guitar, and plays and sings for her ; he makes 
her presents, for which the god)etween brings him sham rings. 
As his flauK;, but does not ])erforni, they use a charm 
upon her, namely, a letter which Calandrin is to place upon her 
skin. The fool's wife is infoi'mcil that he has an api)ointment 
with a loose woman, and is bi-ought to the barn where the 
nuH'ting takes j)lace. Calandrin uses the charm, and the woman 
pretends love. His wife discovers him in a veiy compromising 
situation : he is begging for a kiss as she enteivs. She vituperates 
him and beats him, i)ut at length his friends pacify her, and the 
fool goes home, cured of his foU . 

^ 1)4. Points of Rescmblauctt. — The points of resend>lance are 
plain at once. The point of the novel and the [xMut of the 
drama are the same : a wife arrives inop])ortunely on the scene 
of her liusband's assignation. There is further agreement in the 
following details : the fool sees the woman in disarray ; in the 
novel she is ni her night-gown at the well ; in the Fastnachtspiel 
she is washing her feet ; he serenades her (much emy)hasis is laid 
on this by both authoi-s) ; he gives her presents ; the hoax is 
planned beforehand ; \w is duped by a pretended friend , when 
he fails at Hrst, ho uses .'i charm, made in the same way ; the 
decoy feigns all the way througli ; his wife interrupts and beats 
him, precisely at the same point, in each version. 


§ 96. (!hanK0!4. — The main dittonMico is tliat iti tin- |>liiy, the 
uatiu's, setting iitul colouring' had all hccii injiih' (iiM'inan. 
Calanch'iii is Dilchipj), Nii-olosa thi' mistress Itccoincs llil»K'<;ai"t 
the huwllord's witV, Mi)niia Tessa is Aii^nics. and the Wiuv jokei's 
Phili|tj)(), Bruno, Nello and Ihitrehnacho are, t'oi- the sakt! of 
unity, I'epresented hy Lap]) without any loss in interest or 
dramatic eti'ect. The i)eeasion of the fool's l'allin<; in h»ve is a 
drink in^-hout, all tlie eharactei's ai'e from the lower class ; in a 
woi'd, these changes have Ween introduced with the intention of 
making the Italian material comprehensihle to a (ierman 
audience. This is in acconlaiice with Sachs' almost invariahle 
practice. In suppoi't of the fore<^oin<^ statements re^oirdin^ the 
a<a-eenient in fact, cf. 

Sfeiithir. p. 5():i, 1. 1 1 IK 

p. 502, 1. :u tr. 

p. 504, I. 38 f. 

p. 500, 1. 27, ) 
p. 507,1. 21,3 
p. 5(57, 1. 22. 

Xo. ()2, 11. 1 f. 
.. 1. 0. 
H I. 120 f. 
also I. I.'il f., 135 f. 

No. 02, 1. 255 li". 

1. 305, 

8 96. The Verbal Correspondences. — The main verbal corres- 
pondences are the following: 

Steiiihw. p. ,->aiJ, I. 14. ^''f^- ''■-' '• "^ f- 

r.ruiio spracli pistu so hcherczc.Ht das dn Piatw so aiu in-hi-r-Jtr man 

sy clarst aiifurtii mit eiueiii priej/leiii Viul darfst die wirtin ntermi. on 

das ioh dir gehcii willc. Mit aim zettel, den ich dir f_ieb, 

ib. I. 16. ib. I 238 ff. 

So ge bin vnd pringe mir ein wenig neiier Darzw must aber pringen dw, 

ungeporner karteu vnnd ein leheudige Das ioli die zauberey zv licbt, 

fledennause vnnd drey kiirner weyiach Weirauch vnd ein geweiobt wachslicht 

vnd ein geweielites becbt oder kerczen. Vnd ain lebende fledermaus. 

Sttinhw, p. 5(JU, I. 10. 
Donxmb deucht mieb-— sy daizept ingen 

No. 62, I. S:iO jr. 
ieb "tort/, Tuir niiiesen 

fs Key ir Hebe oder leyde, ist es anders Sic angrewffen mit zaul)erey, 
dein gefallen, vnsern wdlen ze then, Obn ir (flclch lieb oiwr laid sey. 

8 96. Improvements iu No. 62 — There is very little additional 
material of Sachs' own creation in the play. Most of the 


diaiogue is implied or expressed in the novel. His few ad<litions 
are iinproveinents. At 1. 138 he makes Dildapp receive as love- 
token " eiii, iUirzcf nestel." The humorous description of the 
serenade, 1. J7()-205, is in Sachs' l)est manner, and is not found 
in the soui'ce. The circumstance of the liostess when acting as 
t'ne decoy, 1. 345, " JJlc wirfin kiirtipt verpanden, dV.," is a 
necessary (me. In the nov(>l the chai'acters wen; of diiierent 
ranks, l)ut hei'e tliev are nei(dil)ours, and the hostess does not 
wish to be .^con^nized by An<^nes,. 1. 3o0. And Hnally the mutual, 
recriminations (11. 308-4J()) in which La])]) and Angnes imlulge 
are new, and add variety to the final scene. 

^97, Mise-eu-sceiie. — The .stao-e-directions are not s])ecially 
noteworthy. Tliey refer to small details ; for instance, 1. 73, 
when Dildap]) has left the stage, " Vila Lapp (jet ('in, iviiicld 
die wlrti'n; die kampt." These show Sachs to l)e a careful 
stage manager. Again, 1. 338 : " Awpies DUdeppin rerht fi))ger 
auf," l)ecause she is taking an oath ; she says, 1. 338 : " Pey 
giic/nvorem aid.'' The action is suited to the word. As the 
catastroj)he a])])roaches, the action becomes livelier, 1. 305 : 
" JJie wirtin laiift im iiach,' i(:c.: 1. 371: " Ebcrlein D'lUUipp 
(pvuft narh ir," and then when the wife ap])ears, we have a 
battle I'oyal, 1. 375: " Die Amjnes Dildeppin kumpi eitK/eloffen. 
Die wirtin laiift ddt foil. Angnes rauft vnd schlef/t /vh 'Uian, 
jagt 'in vnd), Vlhi Lapp kampt, reixt sie von in)." This was 
evidently ])leasing to the groundling.s, so the mauo'uvre is 
repeated, I. 3!>8 : " Vila Lajyp (jreivft sie an," tliat is Angnes, but 
1.401 : "Aia/nes ziickt sick von im.'' He tells her too many 
home truths, 1. 414 : " Awjnes schlecht auf in ;" 1. 417 : " Angnes 
sckleekt den Lappan liinaiis. Eherlein Dildapp heht sei/n. Iient 
aiif." It is possible Sachs meant this ])oetic Justice to fall on 
him on account of his treachery to his friend. It is sutticiently 

§ 98. General Criticism. — In general, it ixuiy be said that this 
play is one of the best of these which were specially adapted to the 
stage. It is without jirologue or ej)ilogue. The motif is given 
in the very second s])eech l)y I)ilda])])'s avowal of love. The 
play is strongly and carefully " inotiviert" throughout; nothing 


happens without adecjUHto preparation and warning. Tlie action 
is rapid, and t!ie catastrophe well worked-up. The dialogue is 
humorous in the extreme, and where it does not equal Boccaccio 
in wit, it surpasses him in comic power. Sachs has added freely 
in the dialogue ; he has assimilated his material and formed a new 
concei)tion of it ; every additional detail tells ; there are no long 
speeches in it, and not a word of nun-alizing. Of its kind it is a 
finished piece of workmanship. 


^ 99. Source of No. 81, Dee. IX. 4. — No. 81. Der verspilt 
rewler, dated Nov. 1(), 1551). Ga,'tze states the source Neudr. 
63/G4,xi. : "Hans ^V/t'^.s• hat hier wnd in. (/em. Scli a-nvke : Der kerr 
mit dem verspilien kneeht (Bd. 9, ,S'. .f/Vy hi>^ ',7.1 Kdler) den er 
wenvje Monuie vorlter, am 19 (nielif .J9) April, Ioo9, s('lmf,al8 
Vorlajjc Boccaecios Decameron, 9, J,, (hei Sfeinlwivel Bl. 3^^ in 
Keller ti Ausr/ahe, X So8) benvlzt." The mastersong referred to 
was not accessible, hut a com])arison has been made between the 
tale, the sell wank and the play. 

^ 100. Synopsis Deeame?-on IX. 4-. — Two men lived in the city 
of Senis, both with the patronymic Cecco, erne called Angoliere 
and the other Forteringo. They were unlike in some things, 
but both alike were envious of their fathers. Angoliere could 
not live with hi.s parent, and so resolved to join the train of the 
legate at Ancona. Forteringo ottered his friend his services on 
the journey for his m;iiiitenance. His otler was i-efused 
because he was a noted gamester and drunkard, but on 
swearing to reform, Angoliere at last relented. On their 
journey to Bon Convent, Angoliere fell asleep at un inn after 
dinner; Forteringo went to another tavern, got drunk and 
gambled away everything, even his clothing. He then robbed 
his master of all his money, and returned to the gaming-house 
to redeem his fortune. When Angoliere i\v,okv and was about 
to ride away without his servant Jie desii-ed to pay the landlord, 
and then first discovered that he had been i-obl)ed. At this 
juncture Forteringo returned, designing to steal his employer's 



clothes. Instead of being ashfinied of his conduct, he impudently 
begged Angoliere to advance him enough money to redeem his 
jerkin. A bystander then infoi-med Angoliere how Forteringo 
liad acted ; the latter rode away, closely followed by his 
fawning servant, who continually <lemanded the money and 
ignortjd all reljufls. On catching sight of some peasants in the 
fields, a trick suggested itself: he pretended to pursue Angoliere 
as a thief, pi'oclaiming loudly tliat he had been robbed. The 
peasants believed him, and, witli their aid, he stripped his 
master naked, and rode ofi' with his horse. 

§ 101. Variatious lu the Scliwauk. — The Schwank, Keller 9, 
pp. 470-478, otters the following variations from the above 
account. The errand is not stated at length. Cecco, the 
burgher's son, is going to his friend, the cardinal at Ancona. A 
rake, unnamed, otters to serve as courier. He games and robs, 
as stated above, but the informer is not mentioned, nor is the 
point insisted upon, that the courier refuses to be driven aw.ay, 
in quite the impudent fashion of the original. It might have 
been explained in the former case as between equals ; but in the 
Schwank, the rascal's inferior position is more sharply defined, 
• and the plain narrative frame-work of the Schwank does not 
leave much room for such altei'nations to and fro. The informer 
is omitted for the good reason that the situation explains itself ; 
the tell-tale is j^robably not necessary in the original ; cf. 
Steinhw. p. 559, 1. 3(i. 

^ 102. Agreeuient in Fact. — The play preserves tlie main 
incidents of the original stoiy faitlifully ; the servant presenting 
himself, being accepted on liis promise of reformation, the double 
rol)bei'y at the inn, and the turning of the tables upon the 
unfortunate master by the interposi<-ion of the peasants. There 
are no long scenes supj)lied, as in No. 53, § iS9, there being here 
no necessity for them. The action is quite suflficient in itself ; 
and where the play dififers from the tale, it agrees with the 
Schwaid< in eveiy important detail. 

§ 103. Additions. — The additions are as follows : the long 
solilfKiuy of Klas Schellentaus, 11. 19-78, giving a curiums account 
of fifteen games at cards, and showing iiis character as an 


irreclaimable gambler and blackleg. The aeclaration, 1. 65 : 
"Spil ist mein hiich^U' fveud aaf rrt," ])repares us for his 
knavery at the inn. For similar reasons, the lan.llord is 
introduced as complaining ol" the hard times, before the arrival 
of tlie travellers. Sachs has done this elsewhere: cf. No. 51, 
11. 65-8(5, particularly 1. 65 and No. «l, 1. 120. The peasants are 
merely meutione.l in the source ; here they are given rhyming 
names and have a short scene to themselves, 1. 305-820, to 
prepare us for the entrance of Klas and Engelhart. The 
moralizing epilogue spoken by the fleeced sijuire is Sachs' own, 
as might be expected. The very lively dialogue. 1. 3:57 fF. has 
no counterpart in the Schwank or in the Decameron, except the 
hint, SU'inhw. p. 561, 1. 1 5 f. : " Dessrihen nrh'irhen avch A ngohere^ 
sprachc; Abe s,-'lne worf vinh sunst vn<l nirhf vcrlwret wordenr 
The tantalizing situation ol* an honest man in the position of a 
knave, and unable U> right himself: the righteous anger of the 
peasant, 11. 345-350, and the malicious joy of the successful 
rogue, 1. 374, are well depicted and true to life. 

^ 104. Furtlier Chaiifres.— The minor improvements in the 
dialogue and the turning of phrases are so numerous, that only 
the most important can be notice.l. The Italian names are 
made German. Angoliere is " Juncker Engelhart," Fortermgo 
is "Klas Schellentaus " (l)euce-o'-l)iainonds), and the landlord is 
<'Kuncz l\-agauff": cf. Hen. IV., I. 2.-"an<l spent with crying 
brinq l>r." 'En'^u the p.^asants are made less abstractions by 
havinP- comic names (Flegel and KegeU given to them. he 
reason for the s., ire's journey is probably more intdhgible o a 
Ger.uan audience, viz., going to fetch a rich bnde, 11. 3-7 than 
that. ■ wishing to mend his fortunes as a courtier m a church 
di<mit, -v's retinue. I)euce-o'-I)iamon<ls employs the weak 
scamp', usual arguments in a very clever way, on his detection 
attheinn.l. 272 ti: : 

" Ach, liol)(3f junckher, \\\e miigt ir sein 
So unpannherzig ? thuet euch erparmcn 

Veber mich vcrspileten armen. " 

This appeal for sympathy is made to the man he has robbed 
of all his money, ami whom he had intended to rob ot his very 
clothes. Another highly humorous passage is I. 284 tt. : 


" Mein junckher, was timet ir mich schmehen ? 
Wer ixt dm- sich <inr vie venjas ? 
Lieber junckher, verzeicht mir das ? 
Wen ich nier spil, so last uiioli fahen, 
Vnd last pein lioden mich auf hahen ! 
Int (las vichi dcwer (jnruj verHchivorn?" 

It would be liard to lind six lines from any author equalling- 
these in comic power. The expression of injured innocence, the 
universal arirument of the second line, the appeal for pardon 
upon such ((rounds, the dire penalty he proposes for the next 
offence, and the climax of pathetic supplication are irresistibly 

^ 105. Afrroemeiit in Dialogue.—The correspondence in dia- 
logue is as follows : 

Stfinim'. p. 559, I. 9. ^o. 81, I. 102 ff. 

Nun wolan seytmal <lu das llion wilt Wen dw mir den wolst dinen recht, 

als du geschworn hast so pin ich wol Wolst spils vnd sawffens iniiessig gan, 

zenuite daz du komest. So wolt ich dicli gleich nemen on. 

The resemblance here is not close, but the sense is the same, 
and Sachs is the more energetic of the two. 

Sleinhw. p. 559, I. S/f. ^^o. SI, I. 256 ff. 

Ach lieher peyt noch ein wenig ! Es Ja, junckcr, es felet nicht vil 
komet iczund her dcr hat mein ioppcn Durch das spil stet all mein gewant 
vmb funti' und dreissig schilling zu Vmb dreissig schilling mir zv pfant, 
pfant die er mir gern vmb dreyssig Das mir doch wollen gebn die posen 
wider geyt beczale in iczund 1 Vmb zwainczig schilling wider zlo3en» 

Mein lieber junckher, die leycht mir. 
Das ich mein gwant nit gar verlir, 

ih. p. 560, I. S. Kdhr 9, p. 47:2, /. 14 J- 

zu Fortaringo sprach er wer ein pube Du schalck, heb dich von mir an galgen 

schalcke vnd loter, vnd schonet er Vnd lass die rabcn mit dir palgen 

seines selbes nicht er machet in an ein 

yalgen hencken. 

^ ° No. SI, I. 279 f. 

Fetsch dich, ich mag nicht mit dir 


Dw prechst mich paid mit dir an galgen. 

These last quotations illustrate Sachs' way of developing an 
idea : the passage in the play is an improvement on that in the 
Schwank, though the expression of anger in the former is quite 
as natural as the disgust contained in the latter. Occasionally 


Sachs reverts to the ()rif«;iiiai, uiid i)asses over the Schwank ; 
for instance, there is nt)thing ccrrespondinf,' to the following, in 
the Schwank : 

Steiiilur. ),. 501, I. g. JVo. 5/, I. SSI f. 

Ich weyss nitt wio ioh niicli des enthalt Ich wais nit, wer da haltet mich 
das ich dir nit den halse abe stiche. Uas ioh das nieser nicht stich in dich. 

§ 106. Stagre-settliigr.— The niise-on-sc^ne is iniportarit in 
this play, illustrating as it does Sachs' method of converting a 
stoiy into a play, § 8cS. The action, it nnist he confessed, 
lags somewhat at hrst, hut this is more than compensated 
afterwai'ds hy a rapid succession of lively scenes. Engelhart 
enters, states the reason for his journey, and mentions that he 
lacks a servant; exit. Then, 1. 1!), ''Kids Sc/idl('itf<ias uer 
reu'ter yet eiii, tirgt itw.erjf'd vn<l hirfcn, i(:c." These emblems 
of his profession may he a reminiscence of the morality or 
miracle play, in which each character was represented by di-ess, 
tot,', &c. After the long monologue, § 77, the squire enters and 
engages him. In order to make tliis transaction life-like, Sachs 
has the scpiire handsel his servant, 1. 105; '' vmh <iin Ion nach 
geniainem prxuvch ;" 1. 1()(S : '' Jii url-hrr EiHjdharl (/cit im 
gelt in die harit ;" 1. 113 : " Klos tSc/idleiichm-s gelobt an, nemht 
das gelt.'' This inti'oduction of a well-known custom gives 
naturalness and detiniteness to the scene. In the scene at the 
inn, beginning 1. V.U, Schellentaus has been drinking on the sly, 
so he enters wiping his mouth: " Klas Schdlentidis get ein 
wise/it das maivl." When he has gambled away his dress, he 
appears in his shirt, 1. 1(59 : " Kneclit l:^chelle]idaus kiinibt in 
aim hernhd, kvaczt sick im J>'<>p,tf vnd ret mit im sdb ;" cf. 
Keller, 9, p. 471, 1. 24. After robbing his master, which takes 
place on the stage, he goes out again. Then enter the host, and 
to him Engelhart, who has been asleep, 1. 145 f.; to indicate 
what has transpired behind the .scenes, the squire comes- on in a 
drowsy state, 1. 19f): " Per jatickher get liinein, dent sieh, reibt 
die angen vnd sprieJd. Wie nutl hat mir der schlajf gethan." 
He then sends the landlord <»ut to order Klas to saddle, 1. 204: 
" Der ivirt get hinaus vnd schreidf. Klas! Klas: Klas! 1. 205. 
Er get wider ein vnd spricht. " Ich hah lang gesrhriren Klas ! 
Klas!" cf. also 1. 321: "Klas srhreit /dnden mwh." Sachs 





shows tliafc he knows wlieu the actor's voice is to he raised, cf. 
No. <S4, 1. 102, starje-direction. The shoiitiii<,' is (biie into the 
wings. Then comes the reckoninjL;, 1. 21 1 : " Der wirt KcJiant 
an die (hifrl." When Eno-dhart hnds out tliat ho lias heen 
robhed, lie liales the huidlord of/ to the Judge. Then Klas 
enters " v'/*.s uuaiKif^, liotihf T liis master returns, and from his 
servant's condition, 1. 250, and liis admission that he has heen 
gaming, 1. 25(), he guesses wlio has rohhed him, 1. 207. From 
1. 21)0 the action is very lively. Engelhart threatens to make a 
"sword-sheath" of him, 1. 292, and 1. 298: " AV zndi das 
schwerf, Dei' kiia-ht Icf/f wn/ hf'nf zani.'^ EngtOhart turns to 
the, and tells him to k(>e]) the other horse in pawn, 1. 297, 
and ])ays no further attention to Klas. L. 801 : " />/• jvvckher 
yet ah, Dcr Kiicch.i irlhl .svVA an in. Ev sflist in ron hn ; 
gent also mit ei navder aiis. Der ivift sclmni in ikic/i.'' This 
fa wnintif behaviour was shown before: 1. 79: "Jnurkherr 
Eiif/elhart kumpf. Klas ua iff f sick, thuet sein hncf <d>." Now 
this drawing of the sword does not occur in tlu' source, but is 
supplied by Sachs' love of contrasts (§ 24). When the tables 
are turned, the servant girds on the very sword with which he 
has been threatened, 1. 8(17: '• Kfa.^ HcJipllcuda irn zcuchf die 
klaider an, <ju/rf das schnni rnih sic/i." There may he a 
thought of the lordship conveyed in wearing it. Cf. No. 28, 
1. 274,1 2cSl .stage-direction. When the peasants come on, " stent 
vnd horcla'n;' 1. 305. Engelhart rushes on the stage, followed Viy 
Klas: "Die sawn knAneii (/('loft'cn." There is a scuffle, 1. 823: 
" Fricz Kegel felt den junvklierui an" and a second one 1. 858, 
when they strip him: " Sie f(dlen i)i an vnd zihen in (d)." 
Then follows Klas' investiture with his master's clothes, and the 
philosophical epilogue. 

§ 107. General Criticism. — Many otlier passages call for 
comment, such as 11. 824-882, where Klas pays him back for the 
abuse he has received before, 1. 874: "All de rncin jnvckherr, 
ziirnt ir voch T (§§ 16, 2().) The foregoing discussion, however, 
will go far to show that the farce is carefully and consistently 
put together. The stage effect is excellent, the dialogue sparkling 
at times, and the action bustling and varied. The moral is the 
obvious one, 1, 894 : " Wan art die selten lest von art." 


^ 108. The Roffue. - riierc is really only oiu' chiii'aotor 
which may be said to be elaboi-ated He is svu'h an iini)U(lcnt 
and thorouglily unscru|mlons scoundrel, so successful withal, 
that he challenfjes our achniration. He appears first as the 
confessed triekstei-, then the crin<;in<j a|.])Hcant for favour. He 
makes a prondse, and breaks it at the tii-st o])])oi-tinnt.y ; he 
robs his master, and on his detection ci-in^rcs i,-d fawns aj^niu), 
and finally overwhelms us with his stupendous impudence, 
which iiaally turns his defeat into victoi-y. Kngelhart is the 
easy-^'oinfr, rich, younj? man ; the host and peasants are ty})es 
of tlunr "^-esi^ecti've classes njerely : still there ai-e traces of 
indivi.hiality ; cf. landlord's speech, 11. 301-4, and Flecrel's 
outburst of stupid indignation, 11. 345-50. 


§ 109. Source of No. 84, Dec. IX. 1.— No. .S4. Fnnici^^ra 
komzwayerpnelrr ah, dated Oct. MUi, 15()0. Vol. (>3/(i4, xiii. 
Gretze says: ''Ah iichmnk hat rr ilni Sfof den er aus 
Eoccaceios Drcamcron 9. A (Sh'inhuweU Ueher.^etznia/.l<:<'llrr, 
8. 545) schopfte, schov a a, 1. Srptcmlm', 155S, hehavdAtr 

S 110. Synoi)sis of Dec. IX. l.^The account in Steinhowel 
is as follows : an honourable widow called Francisca, in the 
town of Pistoia, was beset by the unwelcome attentions ot two 
lovers, Rinuc/o and Alexander. A man of good fannly, but bad 
character, called Stanadio, had died, an<l been buned ni a vault. 
Francisca sends her man-servant first to Alexan. er, with the 
message that, if he is to win her love, he must take Stanadio s 
place Tn the grave at midnight, with the understanding that he 
would be bnmght to ner house at the proper time. Rinuczo is 
told that if he is to succeed in his wooing, he must fetdi his We 
the dead body of Stanadi(. that night. Each is warned that^if he 
fail in this test, he need not hope for any favour hence orth. 
Th.v both readily promise to do what is recpnred ot them. 
Aiexanrler goes fik to the vault, and, after much hesitation, 
lays himself in the grave. At the proper time Rinuczo comes, 
dmcs the supposed dead man out, with scant ceremony, and 


carrioH him off to iM-niK-iscn's iious.;. But the city wjitchmen, 
who won; waitiTijr to catcli n criiuinal, see Kinuczo with liis 
bunion, and <(iv.! chase. Uiuuczo throws Alexander down and 
runs: Alexander als.j seeks safety in flight. The watchmen 
cannot overtake tliem. Presently Rinuczo returns for the body, 
and searches for it without success. The wi<low, who has been 
watcldnir at hvr window, enjoys their discomfiture, and refuses 
to have anything more to do with eitlier of them, because they 
have not fulfilled her commands. 

^111. Chnnges in the Sclnvaiik. - IMie working-over of 
the'material is the Schwank called - ill" j,i,<ii ei'har' wiffraw 
FnmeiHca" which is printe.l in Bib. Litt. Ver. Sachs ed. Keller, 
vol. (), pp. 424-42!). 11ie main outlines of the story are closely 
followed, Imt the following ckanges are intro.hiced: the message 
is divided into two. and is delivered by a waiting-maid instead 
of a man-servant. Francisca sees the rout of the lovers from 
her window in the moonshine, instead of by the help of the 
watches lantern. There are minor changes which serve mainly 
to emi)hasize the comic situations, e. (/., Alexander is thrown 
down " like a meal-bag." 

(^ 112. Analysis of No. 84 — From this source and from hints 
in the Schwank, the play is ccmstructed, in the following 
marnier. The old machinery of the herald is again set m 
motion, in order to give the audience some idea of the precedhig 
events : he hints at the upshot of the ])lay, and takes his leave. 
Francisca is given the next speech, which still further defines 
the situation. Her husband is dead, and she has two lovers, 
but neither of them please her. During the night she has 
thought of a plan which she now intends to put into operation. 
Her maid, Hulda, enters with news of fresh advances on the 
part of Alexander. Her mistress makes her go back innnediately 
with the first message, as in the Schwank and the novel, naniely, 
that he is to take Stanadio's place in the vault. The rest of the 
"actus" is taken up with the interview between Hulda and 
Alexander. ^Jlie latter gives the maid money for her welcome 
news, and after her exit, expresses his joy in a short speech. 
The second "actus" begins with the entrance of the widow; 


she expresses her ■mipatience to leani the result of the maid's 
first errand. Hulda entei-s, assui-es her that all is well, and 
is then ^nven her second niessaj^^e. tc llimu-/(». It is at this 
point that the widow's stratap'n. first heconies plain to the 
maid and the audience;. Then Uinnc/o ent.^rs, declarin^^ his love 
in a soliloquy, just as Alexander had d<.ni' : Hulda comes and 
gives him the messao-e. lie exi.resses his readiness to com]>ly 
with the widow's demands, and reward^ the o<,-bet^veen. Both 
go out. Francisca, who has hardly exj.ected success, now enters 
discussing the matter with Huhla. The ^>vers, she says, are not 
to lu; admitted, even if they erne. The plot is now complete, 
and the train laid. The third "actus" opens with Alexanders 
entrance'. His first speech shows fear, stvuoolmg with his 
resolution to please his lady, and finally he hraces himself to the 
(lisagi-eeable task. After his .le))arture. Hinuc/o comes, and 
makes a speech of sinnlar import. ())i his exit, the two 
watchmen appear : from their conversation we learn that they 
have come to arrest a murderer, whose crime they discuss in 
detail. Uinuc/o comes on, carryng Alexaiuler, and is mistaken 
by the watchmen for the culprit T):-y then try to st.^j) hun, 
but he throws Alexander down, and runs off, closely followed 
by the ministers of justice. Ah>xander makes his escape, 
unnoticed. Rhuic/.o returns for the body, having distanced his 
pui>suers: on not finding it, he prudep.tly resolves to go home 
and say nothing about the whole affair. Francisca and her 
maid appear, and make merry over the discomfited w(>oers. 
The play is closed by the herahl in a long epilogue, m which the 
obvious morals are drawn.* 

K 113. The Mise-eii-Sceue — This i^lay is remarkable for its 
bei4<livided into three "actus." a.ul for its very effective 
stage-setting. The action is most delicately shaded It would 
seen, from this play, however, that Sachs stage ha< oi.e rather 
serious limitation. Tt had n<.t the platform at the back ot the 
stao-e which has such on important i>lace in the earliest English 

*NoTE.-The verLal resemblance are not enough in this play to require 
special reference. 




(Irjiina. Thu stnije of ilic S])i('llmiis iimst I'.ave Itneu on tlio Hut. 
For iiltlioiif,'li liotli in Boc'ciiccio (uid m tlio S'^hwiiiik (Kcllt'i" J), 
|). 427, I. 10,) Fi'nnciscM. oltsci-vcs the niovcnicnts oi' tlie I'ivals 
and the wutcli from licr \vin(lo\v, there is noattctnjjt to re}))'esont 
this in the |;lay. Francisoa and hei" nmid conu^ upon the sta^e 
to talk tlie matter over. I'^x'en with this (h'aw-hack, the 
7}ii»fi-e}i-^r(\u' is exceMent. Franeisca comes on in a costume, 
l)ec()nn*n_<( hei* charactei', I. 2(1: " Fru iiclsni i/ic Jn ikj wit/rnw, 
(jcf rill ill II i III sc/i ii'd rzcii rlii//Ui'iil, ((■(•." Sa(!hs makes tlie |»lay 
iiatui'al hy tlie intro(hiction of sh"<iht I'ealistic cii-cumstances 
with the manifest (h'si^n of juochicin^^ a, hfe-Iike alhision ; 
1. 122: " A'r (/rif ir</lr /:ri>ii(i, hie nmid /icirf iui (In /unit r/ct 
ahj' cf. 1. 2IS. The actoi's are to express emotion; 1. 12iS: 
" Alrj'dtxici' iii'l frolic/i III) r I- 2!)() : "Riiiticzo dcr <ii\<Jpt 
jihiifHii;/, kiiiiihf (inch I'crziKjI.' This shows wluit Ah'xan<h'r's 
conchict had lieen. Indecision is shown hy Alexander, wlien he 
has ahnost mack' u]) his mind to forego the adve-nture, I. 270 : 
" Er h'i't fiic/i iriih'i' mil), il'v." Franci i testifies her imjiatienee 
by the tone of lier voice ; 1. I()2 : " hir iiidld (fi't ah. Die fv<nv 
achreit iiar/i." Sachs wisely represents thf taking of tlie dead 
man from his grave as happening <»rt" the stage. His lack of 
properties no douht precluded the introduction of such a scene. 
The scene with the watch is felt to he very con)ic, so the 
directions are })lain and full: 1. S2l : "Die zivcii irrchter 
kurne}i mlt sch'iveliispieseii trad fitiistJicnii'vii, Ac." This differs 
from the acco\nit in the Decameron, ]>. 5;")(), 1. : ' Ire spiesse 
Iciiirzeii riul tar-'^c/ieu za den lienden iKinienJ and occurs 
in the Schwank, cf, Keller J), p. 42f), 1. 2(1. Sachs is here 
reproducing, ))rohahly, the ai-mament of the Nureml>erg city 
watch. The l)ody is actually cari'ied on the scene : 1. 802 : 
" Riniu-zo (Ire;/! doi dofen d((/ier, tl\'." I'he summons to stand 
is disregarded ; 1. 367 : " Rinuczo ^virft den dot en von im vnd 
jieiU'Jd, die wee/der Umfen im naeli. Kvaczhanf^ schreif." But 
his command has as little effect upon the fugitive as his mate's; 
1. 370 : " Sie werfen mit fmistliemem naeh ini lan,fen im nach 
hinaus." These are supposed to have taken effect : cf. 1. 380 : 

" Vnd mich hart gworfen in mein lent, Mit iren hemern ." 

After they have nuide their exit. 1. 370 : " Alexander der dot 


ntd (tnf, (<•<:;" ut'tor his H])oec'li, 1. HTH : " Er lauft iv doien claid 
ah;" cl Sft'hhir. i\ 5^0 11. liif.: " Rinuczo hhvhl irider vnd 
aiwrhef den dofrii, dr.;" 1. 'M\ : h'r s,nrhf Inn rml her, &(\" 
This thivct'ol.l iviH-tition of "dol" is Sm-lis jn-ivatc iii(lul<;('nce 
ill ills own Imiiiour. 

(s 114. Infliieme of tlif Schwank. - Gcrt/.c says, vol. ()3/()4, 
xiii.'of thisplay :" Viclc Verse .slim men h he, den liehavdlungen 
c/eiuiii uhere'ni." As in other iri.stancH's, noticeably in No. 26, 
§ :M), Sachs transfers connected |)assa|?es. with very few 
variations, from the tirst handlinj,' to the second : cf. prolo<,nie to 
No. 84, 11. 1-17, with Keller !), ).. 424, 1. 1 tl". This, as well as 
the epilo^nie, was ])rol)ahly added after the eonii)letion of the 
phiy. For, as stated above, § 112, Francisca's speech repeats 
some of the information contained in the herald's speech, and 
could serve, by itself, as a sullicient introduction to tlie play. 
The epilo[,'ue, 11. 427 -4()S, is taken line by line from the Srhwavk 
hese/ditsz^Ke\k^r 9, p. 428, with such necessary chan^'es as " Aus 
difiem i^ehtvank \\\mU zwo ler " to " Aus det- romedi nembt zwo 
ler." The herald is retained, as he is in the h:nglish drama, but 
he is entirely distinct from the play, and no longer part and 
parcel of it as in the pre-Sachsian Fa.stnachtspiel. 

§ 115. Changes and Improveiiionts. — The actual additions to 
the material aUbrded by the Decameron are the prologue, 
11. 1-25, and epilogue, 11. 427-468, and Francisca's first speech, 
11. 2()-43. The two scenes between the maid, Hulda, and the 
wooers II. 77-259, are constructed from the hint l^te'ndnr. p. 548, 
1. 9 : " also der gate knechi zii in peyde.n ginge iglicher hesunder 
der frawen me'mung ze wissen thet." In the Schwaid< there 
were two distinct errands, but in the play they were still further 
dirt'erentiated by the characters of the men to whom the maid 
is sent and the nature of the message in each case. The 
improvement is marked. There are no hints in Boccaccio for 
the interspersed speeches of Francisca in scenes. They 
are of Sachs' own inventing. Pure addition, also, is the first 
part of the conversation between the watchmen, 11. 321-361, 
though the facts are contained Steinfm. p. 550. 11. 5-7. This 
passage may also be considered as a developed hint. The scene 


bet\v(!en Fmiicisca and FhiMa, II. 400 42(1, has no parallol in thw 
souivo ; it forms a very natural conclusion. 

S lift. (Jenonil Komarks. - TIm! omi.s.sions arc slij:jht, and 
belonr? properly undt-r tlu^ rubric of ^'cncral criticism Franci.scii, 
in ^nvin.u' din-ctioiis to licr servant, omits tbe lonrj preamble 
Hiclnhiv. J). 517, 11. 7 Ki. It is not lures.sary t. explain tlu^ 
state of the case to her contidential maid; it is nuich more 
natural that she sIkmiM dash in nwil'iax, 1. 51. In.stead of a 
I()n<r cx!)lanation, Sachs invents an instance of the wooer's 
persecuting^ attention, tidin«;-s of which are brou<,dit by the 
maid, I. 4!). A,o-jiin, here, as is his usual cu.stom, Sachs carefully 
avoids all «lubious allusions. In Hteinliir. ]». 547, 1. )^l, the 
servant is to tell the lover: " rniid dlxo die (/(iiirzen nacht mil 
ir (Ic'ni I'lrwlf /mhrn hxirhf." Alexsnider is made 1" say in the 
play, when he i-etpiests an interview, 1. 50 : " Dorh <Ui^ \tlh tH iii 
ziutcht vnd e.irii;" cf. I. 71. Throu<,diout Alexander's speech, 
11. 78-00, his intentions arc made to apjjear strictly hoi\ourable ; 
cf. 1. 204. Apjiarently Sachs thou^dit the casual li^dit of the 
kintern not sutlicient for the scene, so in both the Schwank and 
the play ho makes it moonlight; cf. Steiiilnv. p. 550, 1. 14 f. 
No. 84, 1. 85:3. 

8 117. The "Motlvienmgr."— The " motivierung" of the 
play is delicately done throughout. Francisca's plan is no 
sudden thought ; 1. :VS H". : 

" DerluvU) liiih \di <lem nach getracht 
Die nacht viid hab ain list ertlacht." 

The op|:oi-tunity for cjirrying out her ])lan is given by 
Alexander's- i-ecpiest for an interview. It makes the play much 
more consistent with itself that everything should spring from 
this first action of Alexander's. Francisca becomes assured that 
the first pai't of her plan will be carried out l)efore she imparts 
the second message to her servant. It is a realistic touch that 
she liardly expects success, 1. loO f. : 

" Was mil- fur ain selzani aiitwort 
Mein maid wirt von dem jangling pringcn." 


Tilt' widow's |)l;'it) l»('t'nn»«'H cUiUT ojilv li\- (Icrrj'PcK, hikI SO tlie 
int»»ro«Ms skilfully U{\\\ t\li*e. In spit*! of Muldii's assertion, 
I 1'), mIh' <I(h»h not iuily \«ii(l»'*'r»tHii(l tlir sitinitioii ; she is 
\nyHtitl«Ml HH vv«'H JIM \\\\\ i\\u\\i*ui'i*, rW I. !')(!. In I'lU't she (1o«?h 
not \»nili'l'Hlnu<l Uov wwUvm (ill 1. '2'A>^, Tor just iM'I'oro slio nsks 
If tlio l»»v«M's JUV (*> \»»' i»thnl!t«'(l to tlic liousc, I. 2:{7 : " Solt irhs 
win hwk* in t^M Aff»M "f" Hful is toM that she must not. In the 
intfei'Vl«'VVK, llu> lutuil lojunlH lu-r niistross' dirct'tions almost 
woi'd i'oi' Wditl. ItuI \iHt»tv is y-ivcn 1>\' tlic (liH'crrncc iji tlio 
H|HMM'hH* nf Hlu>U')^»> MU»I Al*"?^''*!!*!*'!-, tl". 1. MM, u licio Alc'xaudrr 

miys: lief m-te HmVA J^Mhi^ff in (fif I'd zii (jrn ," and 

I. 211 f, wlu'ii' Uinuo/o says: " V)\<l /ii<'s nic niirh doi dofcn 
fni;/('ti An (/(di/cn, i<'h hunt irs nit irrsoifcn." Whon tlu- watch- 
men are introduced, thi'.y arc made, very ])ro})e)'!y, to discuss the 
crime of tiic man for whom tliey are lyini^ in wait. The 
<letails, 11. 8;U *i4l, are all such as mi<^ht In; e\]'«>cted. Their 
couNcrsation indicates the lapse of time (§ 77) wliih' they liave 
been talkin^r Hinuc/o has Jiad time to hrin<4' ^1"' <h'a<l man 
from the <^n-ave. Besides, it nuikes their interfcivnce less ahiupt ; 
they are waiting' for a muiderer, and they mistake the lover for 
the criminal carryinj.,^ off his spoil. 

§ 118. Cluirni'tor-dniwliife'. Fraiicisca, Alcxnndor, Kiiuic/o. — 

Besides this consistent woiking-out of the ))lot, this l^'astnacht- 
spiel displays Sachs' power of delineating charactei" ; in this 
case, as we have ali<'ady seen in Ko. 43, § § (Jfi, ()7. he goes far 
beyond the limits of his original. Because it suited his purpose 
he has created Hulda, the typical servant, and Hirnschrot and 
Kraczhans, the ty})ical watclimen. With the principal characters 
it is different ; they are (h-awn more at full length. Francisca 
is represented as young, beautiful and nuxh.'st, (piick of wit and 
fond of a good jest. Her eager tlutterings of impatience and 
curiosity,!. 120 tf., 1.250, l.f. are thoroughly lifelik«>and womanlike. 
In tlie case of the two loveis, Sachs paints in outlines which had 
been already sketched : for Boccaccio has ditl'erentiated them in 
the novel. Alexander is given a long speech at the grave ; 
SteinhuK p. 548, 1. 19 — p. 549, 1. 4. His thoughts when he is 
actually in tlie grave are described, but he says nothing in his 
own per.son. Rinuczo is said to have njuch the same feelings ; 



Steinhiu. p. 549, 1. 21, Imt he is only ^ivon a sliort speech, 
il).. ]. 29-32. VVorkinn; back from these hints, Saclis ctmstnicts 
the two soHlo((iii('s, 11. 7<S-J)0, 1()5--1(S4. In these Alexander 
appears more ardent, san^niine and generous ; Rirniczo thinks of 
himself, is moi-e Ldooniy ind much less confident of success. 
In their speeches before the grave they ai-e still further 
individualized. Alexander alternates between fear and love ; 
once he almost resolves to give the whole thing up, liut stays 
because he love.5 Franc'sca, 1. 2(S(). Rinuczo is much more 
stoli<l, and argues himself into dohig what h(> finds disagreeable. 
It is characteristic of the essentially GermaTi nature of Sachs 
that he makes his ardent lover unsuspicious. The Italian lover 
thinks of j)ossible treachery on the part of his mistress, or tliat 
her friends may have a plot in hand to kill him. Sachs* 
Alexander fears only tlie devil ; cf. l^ielnhw. p. 54S, 1. 22 ff. 
Anothei- of those touches of self-consciousness noticed before, 
§ 92, occurs in this \)\'Ay. Sachs knows that the practical joke is 
like a carnival trick, so Francisca is made to say, 1. 400 ; 
" Huelda wie gfelt dir die fasnacht ?" 


§ lie. Inferences from ths Foregoing Examination. — These 
tiiirteen plays represent (mly a part of those examined ; 
most of tliose with known sources have been compared 
witii sucli originals as are accessible in this country. While 
there is variety enough, we find a certain regularity of treatment 
which would lead us to expect the same in other plays when 
their soui'C's are discovered. Those which form the subject of 
this dissertation illusti-ate Sachs' difiei-ent periods of de\ elopment. 
No. 1() marks distinctly his change in manner from the old 
Fastnachtspiel (§ 14). This is the first play with a degree of 
complication in tiie plot. With No. 23, written in the year of 
the buihling of the play-house, 1550, begins a series of plays 
adapted for a stage, and not for an improvised ]K)Use-theatre. 
From this time on we have broad comedy, as No. 41, or serious 
comedy, as No. 43, but always with com[)licated plots. After 
1546 Sachs never returns to the old dialogue form. The plays 


do not represent a steady progress, but a fluctuatinrr degree of 
excellence, Tlirougliout we have found certain constant forces 
and pervading tendencies. 

I. His material has been made thoroughly his own. The plot 
of the novel has been first assimilated and has then taken a new 
shape. The fact that the same material is so often used for a 
schwank or mastersong liefore being made into a Fastnachtspiel 
proves this. He has made the freest use of his material. In 
some instances he has a(ihered closely to his source ; again, he 
adds and omits largely, cuts and concentrates, (jr rounds out and 
expands his material. 

II. The moral tendency is strong. This is seen most plainly 
in the epilogues, but is found also in certain situations and 
speeches, and in his (•v,;isistent omission of the obscene. 

III. The tendencies of these thirteen plays are dramatic. 
The plots selected are those with plenty of action; the 
" motivierung " is careful ; often in his more serious plays, a 
character is strongly sketched, and the directions to the actors 
show him to be a practised stage-manager. The result is, for 
the age, an unusual degree of excellence. 



The writer was born June 2 1st, 1862, in Berlin, Province of 
Ontario, Dominion of Canada, and received his preliminary 
education at the Picton Public and High Schools, and later at 
the Hamilton Collegiate Institute. In 1880 he matriculated at 
the University of Toronto, where he was graduated in 1884, 
with Honours in Modern Languages. For the next six months 
he held the position of Second Assistant at the Brock ville High 
School, and was then appointed Modern Language Master at the 
Gait Collegiate Institute. In 1886 he resigned the latter .position 
in order to attend the Johns Hopkins University, where for the 
past three years he has pursued advanced cc irses in German, 
English and Old Norse. In January, 1887, he received the 
Scholarship in German, and, in the following June, was awarded 
a Fellowship in the same department. He takes this oppor- 
tunity of thanking Dr. Wood, Dr. Bright and Dr. Browne 
for their help, counsel and encouragement throughout his 
course; especially Dr. Wood, whose unvarying kindness has 
laid him under the deepest obligations, and whose broad and 
thorough scholarship has furnished him with a standard of 
possible attainment. 


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* In accordance with the university regulations. 


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